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    Review of soil respiration and the impact factors on grassland ecosystem
    ZHOU Ping, LIU Guo-bin, XUE Sha
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (2): 184-193.  
    Abstract1079)      PDF (460KB)(733)       Save
    Soil respiration plays an important part in the balance of the global carbon budget. This paper reviews the function of the global carbon balance, the classification of soil respiration, and the impact factors on grassland ecosystems. The ratios of each proportion of grassland ecosystem soil respiration differed because of different spatial and temporal scales. This respiration also responded differently to biotic, abiotic, and human activity factors. The abiotic impact factors included soil temperature (potentially important with climate warming), soil water content, precipitation, aridification and carbon/nitrogen elements. The biotic impact factors involved leaf area index, photosynthesis, litters, and human activities included land use change, grassland reclamation and fertilizer use. The Q 10 of soil respiration, key controlling factors and interaction among different impact factors are discussed. In Conclusion, soil respiration of the grassland ecosystem is a complex biochemical process. The complex biochemical process is controlled by certain major factors and regulated by interactions among multi-factors. This summary, highlights existing problems of grassland ecosystem soil respiration and suggests future directions for progress together with some future topics for research.
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    Cited: Baidu(93)
    Evaluation method of ecological services function and their value for grassland ecosystems
    LIU Xing-yuan, LONG Rui-jun, SHANG Zhan-huan
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2011, 20 (1): 167-174.  
    Abstract928)      PDF (630KB)(2552)       Save
    Grasslands not only support animal production, but also play an important role as an ecological safety barrier and they maintain herders’ livelihood as well as inherited culture. However, a series of ecological problems are becoming more and more serious because of increasing grassland degradation. The economic valuation of the grassland ecosystem service function will help conservation and rational development of grassland resources in China. Costanza’ evaluation method for ecological services value was widely adopted abroad but this method cannot fully reflect the intrinsic characteristics of grassland ecosystems. Based on the functions of ecology, production, and living systems of grassland ecosystems, the contribution rate of the top 12 items for ecological services function of grassland ecosystems (water storage, erosion control, nutrition cycling, waste treatment, resort sand and dust, biological control, release O 2, fixation CO 2, cut SO 2, recreation, culture, and animal production), were chosen for this study of a comprehensive consideration of regional differences, spatial heterogeneity, and difference of economic development levels of different areas. The evaluation index system and models of grassland ecological services value were established based on the theory of ecological economics. The values of grassland ecosystem functions of the northern Tibet region were evaluated using this method.
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    Cited: Baidu(91)
    Effect of grazing intensity on characteristics of alpine meadow communities in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
    REN Qing-ji, WU Gao-lin, REN Gou-hua
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (5): 256-261.  
    Abstract1090)      PDF (727KB)(1395)       Save
    A comparative study on community characteristics with different grazing intensitie was conducted in alpine meadows of the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (Maqu county, Gansu province). With increased grazing intensity, vegetation height, total cover and above-ground biomass all showed a significant decrease. The importance of species of Cyperaceae and Gramineae families fell and their dominances were replaced by some forbs species ( Ligularia virgaurea and Leontopodium leontopodioides). For plant functional groups, the biomass proportions of the germinal species group and the sedge species group were significantly reduced by increased grazing intensity, but the biomass proportions of leguminous species group, forbs species group and noxious species group were significantly increased. Richness index ( R), Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H) and Evenness index ( E) of alpine meadow communities reached a maximum under the middle grazing intensity in the moderately-grazed plot>heavily-grazed plot>non-grazed plot. Results suggest that with increased grazing, alpine meadow communities will undergo a succession from “dominated by tall germinal and sedge species” to “dominated by tall germinal and sedge species+middle forbs species”, then to “dominated by middle and lower forbs species”.
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    Cited: Baidu(83)
    Spatial and temporal dynamic changes of net primary product basedon MODIS vegetation index in Gannan grassland
    WANG Ying, XIA Wen-tao, LIANG Tian-gang, WANG Chao
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2010, 19 (1): 201-210.  
    Abstract761)      PDF (1552KB)(1484)       Save
    Dry matter yield information from field surveying quadrats and MODIS vegetation index data in Gannan Prefecture during 2006-2007 were used to construct a remote sensing monitoring model for aboveground dry matter biomass of grassland. The net primary product (NPP) of grassland was estimated and used to, complete the spatial distribution maps of annual NPP accumulation and monthly NPP dynamic changes, and to evaluate the NPP difference between various grassland vegetation types. The annual maximum NPP of grassland in Gannan Prefecture during 2006-2008 were 637.04, 599.98 and 566.59 g C/(m 2·a), respectively. The distribution of annual maximum NPP has a trend of gradual reduction from southwest to northeast and the yearly maximum NPP accumulation of all grassland types was in July and August. The three grassland types with the highest NPP accumulation were marsh, alpine shrub meadow, and alpine meadow, with monthly maximum NPP values of 1 137.28, 553.76 and 527.66 g C/m 2, respectively (mean values for the three years). The grassland NPP in Gannan Prefecture was continuously decreasing over the three years, with an annual reduction forthe total grassland of 1.2 Tg/a. The reduction of marsh NPP is especially significant, with an annual rate of 125.92 g C/(m 2·a).
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    Cited: Baidu(75)
    Effects of different land-use types on soil carbon and nitrogen contents in the northern region of Qinghai Lake
    QIAO You-ming, WANG Zhen-qun, DUAN Zhong-hua
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (6): 105-112.  
    Abstract838)      PDF (1032KB)(576)       Save
    Four different land-use types, fenced and ungrazed (FU), fenced and seasonal grazed (FG), perennial pasture (PP) and crop land (CL) in the Sanjiao Cheng Sheep Breeding Farm located in the northeastern part of Qinghai Lake, were used to investigate underground biomass, soil particle size, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents of the 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm soil layers. Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen storage were different under different land-use types. The storage of soil organic carbon per unit area varied in the order of PP>FU>FG>CL. The soil organic carbon in the perennial pasture was significantly ( P<0.05) higher than that in cropland, but no significant difference was found between the other two types ( P>0.05). The changes of total nitrogen were similar to those of organic carbon. In the 0-30 cm soil depth, the underground biomass varied in the order FU>FG>PP>CL, with values of 2 416.67, 1 688.25, 1 224.50, and 1 290.75 g/m 2 respectively. In the 0-10 cm soil layer the soil clay content of PP was significantly ( P<0.05) higher than in the other three types. The soil clay content of the 10-20 cm soil layer was in the order PP>CL>FU>FG. No significant differences in soil clay contents were found in the 20-30 cm soil layer under different land-use types. The soil silt contents of the four different land-use types were not significantly different in the same soil layer.
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    Cited: Baidu(72)
    Advances in the study on ecological stoichiometry in grass-environment system and its response to environmental factors
    YANG Hui-min, WANG Dong-mei
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2011, 20 (2): 244-252.  
    Abstract206)      PDF (449KB)(732)       Save
    Ecological stoichiometry is the science studying the balance of energy and elements (i.e. C, N and P) in biological systems, providing an integrative approach to investigate the stoichiometric relationships and rules in the biogeochemical cycling and ecological processes. During the recent decade, progress has been achieved in the study on the ecological stoichiometry in terrestrial systems. Lots of efforts have been put in the research on the measurement of stoichiometric ratios in grassland, forest, wetland and arable land, etc. Concerns have been focused on the comparison of stoichiometric traits among different systems, functional groups and species, and on the coupling of the traits with environmental factors. In this review article, the advances in the study on ecological stoichiometry in grass-environment system were summarized, focusing on the stoichiometric traits in grassland system and its response to environmental factors.
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    Cited: Baidu(72)
    Salinity stress responses and tolerance thresholds in four warm-season turfgrasses
    LIU Yi-ming, CHENG Feng-zhi, WANG Qi, HU Yu-yong, WANG Zhao-long
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (3): 192-199.  
    Abstract962)      PDF (1277KB)(1676)       Save
    Four warm-season turfgrass species ]Bermudagrass ‘Tifdwarf’ ( Cynodon dactylon×C. transadlensis), Centipedegrass ( Eremochloa ophiuroides), Seashore Paspalum ‘Salam’ ( Paspalum vaginatum), and Zoysiagrass ( Zoysia matrella)] were grown in PVC pots under a series of NaCl concentrations to study the salinity stress responses of turfgrass growth and physiological parameters. Seashore Paspalum showed the best salinity tolerance. The visual quality, relative growth rate, relative water content, chlorophyll index, and Fv/Fm decreased 52.2%, 76.2%, 62.1%, 59.4%, and 72.9%, respectively after 36 d at 600 mmol/L NaCl, but the electrolyte leakage increased to 71.5%. The cell membrane damage in Seashore Paspalum was the lowest of the three species. Zoysiagrass also showed good salinity tolerance, with decreases in visual quality, relative growth rate, relative water content, chlorophyll index, and Fv/Fm of 85.2%, 85.3%, 70.5%, 73.9%, and 49.3%, respectively after 36 d at 600 mmol/L NaCl, and with an increase in electrolyte leakage of 81.8%. Bermudagrass and Centipedegrass showed the lowest salinity tolerance with treatment of 600 mmol/L NaCl and both species were dead after 36 d. The salinity tolerance thresholds of four turfgrass species were determined using linear regression of plant growth rate against NaCl concentration. After 36 d treatment plant growth rate was reduced to 50% of the control. The tolerance thresholds are Centipedegrass 222.4 mmol/L, Bermudagrass 232.4 mmol/L, Zoysiagrass 374.8 mmol/L, and Seashore paspalum 474.0 mmol/L.
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    Cited: Baidu(69)
    Effects of shade on the photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of three kinds of leguminous forage
    ZHANG Zhe, YANG Shu, DU Gui-juan, HUANG Shu-ping, MA Feng-jiang
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2013, 22 (5): 212-219.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20130525
    Abstract1295)   HTML1)    PDF (1736KB)(869)       Save
    To investigate the ecological adaptability of leguminous forage under different shade conditions and seek appropriate shading proportions, the photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of three kinds of leguminous forage were determined under three shade conditions (0%, 48%, 70%, 95%). The results of the experiment showed that the light compensation point (LCP) and light saturation point (LSP) of Trifolium repens were at a low level. Medicago sativa and Melilotus suaveolens could maintain low LCP and LSP in the appropriate shade conditions, but they decreased with an increase in shade. The content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll a+b ratio in leaves decreased with increasing shade and the levels in T. repens were higher than those in the other two f legumes in the same shading treatments. The chlorophyll a/b ratio maximum performance of M. sativa was in the Y3 treatment. The order of leguminous forage for sensitivity to PSⅡinjury was: M. sativaM. suaveolensT. repens; The ΦPSⅡ and qP of T. repens and M. suaveolens were slightly reduced with shading, while those of T. repens were slightly increased under Y3 treatment conditions, and the M. sativa initially increased but then decreased with an increase of shading.The shading intensity sequence of the three kinds of leguminous forage was: T. repensM. suaveolensM. sativa. T. repens could still grow well in more than 70% shade, M. suaveolens were grew well under 48% shade, and M. sativa was greatly affected by shade.
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    Cited: Baidu(68)
    Species diversity of degraded vegetation in different age restorations in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China
    ZUO Xiao-an, ZHAO Ha-lin, ZHAO Xue-yong, GUO Yi-rui,
    ZHANG Tong-hui, MAO Wei, SU Na, FENG Jing
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (4): 9-16.  
    Abstract700)      PDF (422KB)(631)       Save
    Following a series of field investigations into vegetation characteristics in Horqin Sandy Land, the community composition and species diversity were analyzed along a restoration gradient of dune vegetations [non-fenced mobile dune, 11-year old dunes (mobile dune, semi-mobile dune, and semi-fixed dune), 20-year old fenced dunes (mobile dune, semi-mobile dune, semi-fixed dune, and fixed dune)] and scattered tree grassland. Vegetation cover, species richness and diversity increased with an increase in degree of fixed and fenced years of mobile dunes. The succession series of plant communities were: Pioneer plants of Agriophyllum squarrosum and a few annual plants (mobile dune stage) → Artemisia halodendrom shrub and annual, biennial herbs (semi-mobile dune and semi-fixed dune stages) → annual, biennial and perennial herbs (fixed dune stage). As the amount of grass and perennial herbs increased in the process of dune vegetation restoration, the structure of plant communities became complex and herbage quality was considerably improved.
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    Cited: Baidu(62)
    Effects of different disturbances on species diversity and biomass of community in the typical steppe
    Hugejiletu, YANG Jie, Baoyintaogetao, BAO Qing-hai
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (3): 6-11.  
    Abstract716)      PDF (640KB)(384)       Save

    Abstract: Effect of different disturbances on species diversity, community height, community density, aboveground biomass of the typical steppe was investigated by quadrant method. Four treatment plots were devised in the study area, including moderately grazed (G), mowing once a year (M), exclosure for 7 year (E7) and exclosure for 27 year (E27) plots. The richness index, diversity index and evenness index in the E27 and G were significantly higher than those in the E7 and M, but there is no significantly difference between E27 and G. So, E27 and G might maintain community species diversity. The important values of the indicator plant of degradation (Cleistogenes squarrosa) in M and G plots were significantly higher than that of the exclosure plots. The above ground biomass of E7 was 454.06 g/m2,and significantly higher than that of the other plots. Thus, E7 could significantly increase the steppe productivity, but there would be no help for the steppe productivity if exclosure lasts too long.

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    Cited: Baidu(62)
    Influence of seasonal exclosure on plant and soil characteristics in typical steppe
    SHAN Gui-lian1,2, XU Zhu1,3, NING Fa1,2, JIAO Yan4
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (2): 3-10.  
    Abstract795)      PDF (1951KB)(663)       Save
    To discuss the restoration and reasonable utilization of degraded typical steppe, we chose natural grasslands which were exclosed during the growing season (Apr. to Sep.) for hay production then lightly grazed for the rest of the year. Continuously grazed land was chosen as the control to carry out comparative research on the influence of exclosure on plant and soil characteristics in typical degraded steppe. 1) Compared with continuous grazing, the above-ground biomass, coverage, density, under-ground biomass, litter biomass, and soil nutrients of degraded steppe increased after exclosure, while the soil bulk density, soil compaction, and coarse particle (>0.25 mm) content decreased. The community structure and soil environment improved. The plants and soil formed a reciprocal interactions benign circulatory system, and the typical degraded grassland improved. 2) If the land was used continuously for hay production over many years then the process of recovery, productivity, coverage, density, and soil nutrients decreased, and the recovered grassland underwent a second retrogressive succession. 3) Seasonal exclosure could allow full use of grassland resources while ensuring that the degraded grassland recovered to some extent. Seasonal exclosure was a feasible grassland management method in pastoral areas, but some problems such as suitable exclosure season and reasonable mowing systems require further study.
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    Cited: Baidu(59)
    Influence of seasonal exclosure on plant and soil characteristics in typical steppe
    SHAN Gui-lian, XU Zhu, NING Fa, JIAO Yan
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (2): 1-2.  
    Abstract602)      PDF (302KB)(699)       Save
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    Cited: Baidu(59)
    Effects of conservation tillage on crop yield and carbon pool management index on top soil withina maize-wheat-soy rotation system in the Loess Plateau
    YANG Jing, SHEN Yu-ying, NAN Zhi-biao, GAO Chong-yue, NIU Yi-ning, WANG Xian-zhi, LUO Cai-yun, LI Guang-di
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2010, 19 (1): 75-82.  
    Abstract730)      PDF (1013KB)(1887)       Save
    The effects of conventional tillage (t), conventional tillage with stubble retention (ts), no-tillage (nt), and no-tillage with stubble retention (nts) treatment on crop yield,soil total nitrogen and carbon, total organic carbon,oxdizible organic carbon, and carbon pool management index (CPMI) were investigated within a maize-wheat-soy rotation system in the western Loess Plateau. Total crop yield for ten harvests during the years 2001 to 2007 under ts and nts treatments increased by 3.63 and 1.62 g/kg compared with conventional tillage, but decreased by 2.48 g/kg on the nt treatment. Total nitrogen contents under nts treatment were 15.4%, 30.2% and 16.2% higher than t, ts and nt treatments. Total carbon under nts treatment was significantly increased by 2.04 g/kg and total organic carbon were 2.50, 1.56 and 1.70 g/kg higher than under t, ts and nt treatment, respectively. Easily oxdized organic carbon under nts was 2.13 g/kg higher than under t treatment. TN/TC decreased by 12.75%,15.97%,6.87% and 24.16% under t, ts, nt and nts treatments. The CPMI under ts, nt and nts were 12.6%,20.1% and 46.6% higher than under t,both stubble retention and no-till were beneficial to increasing the soil organic carbon content and improving the quality of the carbon pool.
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    Cited: Baidu(56)
    Effect of carbon cycling in grassland ecosystems on climate warming
    FAN Yue-jun, HOU Xiang-yang, SHI Hong-xiao, SHI Shang-li
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2012, 21 (3): 294-302.  
    Abstract1549)      PDF (459KB)(2058)       Save
    Human activity-induced greenhouse effects and the impact of consequent global warming on grassland ecosystems have drawn increasing attention. Carbon cycling of grassland ecosystems is an important component in terrestrial ecosystem, and is an essential contribution to carbon sources in the terrestrial biosphere in future. It is necessary to understand the effect of carbon cycling on climate change for the prediction of terrestrial ecosystems and for relevant policy making. This paper reviews current research on the impact of global warming on net primary productivity, soil respiration, litter fall input and decomposition, and on the carbon pool of grassland ecosystems. The mechanisms and processes of grassland ecosystems in responding to global warming are discussed, existing problems in research on carbon cycling of grassland ecosystems are analyzed and possible further research is proposed.
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    Cited: Baidu(53)
    Effects of salt stress on seed germination and seedlings growth of salt-tolerant line and salt-sensitive line of maize
    PENG Yun-ling, LI Wei-li,WANG Kun-ze, WANG Han-ning
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2012, 21 (4): 62-71.  
    Abstract132)      PDF (1482KB)(295)       Save
    Salt stress affects plant growth and development and reduces productivity of crop. Maize ( Zea mays) is moderate sensitive to salt. Screening and studying maize germplasm resistant to salt have certain directive function on improving salt-tolerant germplasm resources and breeding salt-tolerant variety, and have certain theoretical meaning of genetic mechanism of salt tolerance in maize. The study will focus on the comprehensive comparison of salt-tolerant properties change of salt-tolerant lines 8723, 81162 and salt-sensitive line P138 at germination and seedling stages under salt stress, in order to probe into salt-tolerant mechanism in maize, to provide the materials for breeding resistant-salt variety and discovering genes related to salt tolerance and to lay the foundation for salt-tolerant genetic mechanism in maize.Seed germination and seedling growth of salt-tolerant lines 8723, 81162 and salt-sensitive line P138 of maize under different concentrations of NaCl stress were determined in this experiment. The experimental results indicated that, with the increase of salt concentration, there were higher germination rate, germination potential, germination index, activity index, plumule length, and lower salt injury index, of salt-tolerant line with a small change at seed germination stage, compared with salt-sensitive line. A study of salt-tolerant lines and salt-sensitive line under different concentrations of NaCl stress in seedling stage showed that the height of seedlings, root length, fresh weight of the three inbred lines all decreased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. The decrease rate of these indices for the salt-tolerant lines was all less than those for the salt-sensitive inbred line. The results of physiological changes under different concentrations of salt stress indicated that there were higher relative water content and lower relative conductivity of organization of external seepage of salt-tolerant lines with a small change, compared with salt-sensitive line. To analyze all experimental results, salt-tolerant line 8723 had stronger tolerant than 81162.
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    Cited: Baidu(52)
    Analysis of dynamic spatial-temporal changes of landscape patterns in Hulunber meadow steppes——Taking Hailaer and surrounding areas as an example
    ZHANG Hong-bin, YANG Gui-xia, HUANG Qing, LI Gang, CHEN Bao-rui, XIN Xiao-ping
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (1): 134-143.  
    Abstract510)      PDF (3391KB)(403)       Save
    The dynamic spatial-temporal changes of landscape patterns in and around Halaer were analysed. First, the research area was divided into water, sand, farmland, city, and grassland based on remote sensing images of 1986, 1991, 1996 and 2001, and on field investigations. Second, the grasslands were classified into highest coverage grassland, high coverage grassland, medium coverage grassland and low coverage grassland using a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Finally, the dynamic spatial-temporal changes of the eight kinds of landscape patterns were analyzed using landscape ecology principles. Human activities intensified significantly from 1986 to 2001 in the research area and the area of grassland landscape was rapidly reduced and the extent of fragmentation intensified. The dominant landscape in the research area changed from highest-high coverage grassland to medium-low coverage grassland. Expansion of the sand landscape was obvious in the periphery of roads, city and farmland while the grassland vegetation seriously degenerated. Fragmentation of the city landscape was reduced as patches decrease and became centralized. The economic development pattern of the research area is at a stage that is transforming from an extensive pattern to an intensive urbanization pattern.
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    Cited: Baidu(51)
    Changes of carbon storage in vegetation and soil during different successional stages of rehabilitated grassland
    WANG Jun-ming, ZHANG Xing-chang
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (1): 1-8.  
    Abstract573)      PDF (828KB)(557)       Save
    Over the last few decades the extent of land-use and vegetation composition has dramatically changed in the Loess Plateau. For a better understanding of the dynamics of rehabilitated grassland, carbon storage in vegetation and soil were studied in a space series of replaced time courses. The aboveground biomass carbon did not directly increase at the beginning stage of succession, but decreased to its lowest point in the second year following abandonment. After abandonment for 22 to 32 years, the aboveground biomass carbon increased to a steady state and after abandonment for 40 and 60 years, it approached a second steady state. The dynamics of root biomass carbon was similar to that of aboveground biomass carbon. Between abandonment ages 12 and 28 years, the root biomass carbon reached a steady state and between abandonment ages 32 and 60 years, the root biomass carbon approached a second steady state. Compared with cropland, the rehabilitated grassland had a lower soil organic carbon storage at the beginning (1-12 years) but after 15 years the soil organic carbon storage was higher than in cropland and had increased stably. In the 0 to 150 cm soil profile, the soil organic carbon content of the 0 to 15 cm layer was the highest. Our study indicated that in the early successional stage of rehabilitated grassland, the aboveground biomass carbon, root biomass carbon and soil organic carbon storage did not increase, but remained at a low-level for about 10 years. Further study is required to work out how to reduce this delay.
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    Cited: Baidu(51)
    Temporal and spatial distribution of grassland degradation in northern Tibet based on NDVI
    CAO Xu-Juan, Ganjurjav H, LIANG Yan, GAO Qing-Zhu, ZHANG Yong, LI Yu-E, WAN Yun-Fan, DANJIU-Luobu
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2016, 25 (3): 1-8.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2015378
    Abstract925)   HTML0)    PDF (1320KB)(561)       Save
    An expansive alpine grassland ecosystem dominates the landscape in Northern Tibet, and the status of this grassland has significant implications for the major Asian rivers, and for the climate and eco-environment of Tibet and the wider region. The harsh natural environment and fragile ecosystem, together with increasing frequency and intensity of human activities such as pastoralism, and climate change, have resulted in increasing reports of degradation of the grassland ecosystem. We used vegetation cover as main indicator of ecosystem health, and with remote sensing monitoring, calculated the grassland degradation index (GDI) and evaluated grassland degradation in Northern Tibet from 2000 to 2010. The analysis was based on the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) with a spatial resolution of 8 km from 1981 to 1985 and from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with a spatial resolution of 0.25 km of 2000-2010. Then, we have analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of grassland degradation in Northern Tibet from 2000 to 2010. It was found that grassland degradation in Northern Tibet was still severe. The GDI was 1.97 in 2010, near to seriously degraded status. The extremely seriously degraded and seriously degraded categories occupied 6.5% and 19.0% of the study area, respectively. The moderately and slightly degraded grassland categories accounted for 15.1% and 12.1%, respectively. Undegraded grassland occupied 41.8% of the total grassland area in 2010. The extent of extremely seriously degraded and seriously degraded categories was greatly increased in the data from 2000-2010, compared with the period from 1981-1985. However, the increase in grassland degradation in Northern Tibet from 2000 to 2010 was slight, with the mean value of the GDI being 1.84 in 2010, representing a change from light degradation to moderate degradation in Northern Tibet from 2000 to 2010.
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    Cited: Baidu(50)
    Modeling dynamics of soil organic carbon in an alpine meadow ecosystemon Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau using the Century model
    LI Dong, HUANG Yao, WU Qin, MING Zhu, JIN Dai-ying
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2010, 19 (2): 160-168.  
    Abstract809)      PDF (1103KB)(533)       Save

    A widely used model, Century, was used to simulate the seasonal dynamics of carbon fluxes from soil microbe respiration in alpine Kobresia humilis meadow at Haibei research station, CAS. Monthly maximum and minimum air temperatures and precipitation derived from meteorological data at Menyuan weather station in Qinghai province were used to drive the model. Carbon, nitrogen and cellulose contents were used to initialize the Century model, and all parameters related to the model were based on data from published documents. The observed versus simulated CO2-C efflux gave R2=0.89 (P<0.05) with all months included in the analysis. The 0 to 20 cm SOC level at equilibrium was about 7,597.50-7,694.10 g C/m2, with the active, slow and passive SOC pool sizes about 2.80%, 58.50% and 38.70% of the total SOC, respectively. The following simulation resulted in stable fluctuation change in SOC, which was mainly caused by fluctuations of its fractions. The impacts of climate changes on soil SOC was mainly related to soil passive SOC, and a negative correlation existed between mean annual air temperature and passive SOC pool size, with the partial correlation coefficient of -0.548 (P<0.01). Precipitations had no effects on SOC or its fractions over the entire simulation period of about 45 years.

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    Cited: Baidu(49)
    Production and N nutrient performance of wheat-maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system and evaluation of interspecies competition
    YONG Tai-wen, YANG Wen-yu, XIANG Da-bing, CHEN Xiao-rong, WAN Yan
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2012, 21 (1): 50-58.  
    Abstract978)      PDF (531KB)(1553)       Save
    The aim of this paper was to study the variation of interspecies competitiveness in two relay strip intercropping system: wheat-maize-soybean and wheat-maize-sweet potato. The character of biomass accumulation and nitrogen uptake were examined for five cropping systems using years of field experiment. The cropping systems included three sole cropping systems (wheat-soybean, wheat-sweet potato and maize) and two relay strip intercropping systems (wheat/maize/soybean and wheat/maize/sweet potato). Land equivalent ratio (LER), aggressiveness (A), and nutrition competition ratio(NCR) were introduced as indexes to evaluate the interspecies competitiveness in each treatment. The results showed that there was obvious relay strip intercropping advantage ( LER>1, Awc<0, Acs>0, NCRwc<0, NCRcs>1) in the wheat-maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system, maize occupied the dominant niche for the whole growing stage in the relay strip intercropping systems, and the interspecies competitiveness of wheat and soybean were lower than that of the maize. Comparing with the sole cropping systems and wheat-maize-sweet potato relay strip intercropping system, the grain yield and nitrogen uptake, total biomass and total nitrogen uptake above ground of crops were increased significantly at both flowering (or spinning) and maturity stages in the wheat-maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system. The values of biomass and nitrogen uptake for the relay strip intercropping system were greater than the sole cropping systems, and that of soybean stubble were greater than sweet potato stubble. The total economic returns of crops in the wheat/maize/soybean relay strip intercropping system was higher 28.02% than those of crops in the wheat/maize/sweet potato relay strip intercropping system.
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    Cited: Baidu(49)
    Remotely sensed dynamics monitoring of grassland aboveground biomass and carrying capacityduring 2001-2008 in Gannan pastoral area
    LIANG Tian-gang, CUI Xia, FENG Qi-sheng, WANG Ying, XIA Wen-tao
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (6): 12-22.  
    Abstract999)      PDF (1296KB)(745)       Save
    Monitoring grassland aboveground biomass (GAB) is not only an important content for the research of spatial patterns of grassland resources, but is also a basis for the integration analysis of the balance between grassland forage supply and livestock demand. Grassland investigation data from 2006-2008 and Terra/MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) daily surface reflectance product of MOD09GA in Gannan pastoral area, were used to establish both a monitoring model of GAB, and the 10-day, monthly and yearly dynamics of biomass and theoretical livestock carrying capacity during 2001-2008 in Gannan Prefecture. And each county was simulated and analyzed. Results suggested that the power function of MODIS-EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) can best simulate the green yield of GAB in Gannan pastoral area. The mean precision of the monitoring model was 76.7%, which might simulate the GAB dynamics in the period from May to October when the grassland was at a good growing stage. It mainly concentrated in the period from the first 10-days of May to the third 10-days of October during the grassland growth time. During this period digital images of the maximum GAB in a 10-day period may objectively reflect the general rule of grassland growth, but a few of the digital images of the maximum GAB were severely affected by rainy or cloudy weather condition which lasted a long time and covered a large scale, with a considerable change in the quantity of grazing livestock. The dynamic curve of the monthly maximum GAB for each grassland type during 2001-2008 was characterized by a unimodal parabola form. The average maximum GAB appeared in July, but the month that the GAB reached the maximum value varied from year to year, mainly in the period from July to August. There were great differences in the overall biomasses in different years in the Gannan pastoral area. The average overall biomass during those years in the overall Prefecture was 109.31×10 8 kg. The highest value appeared in 2005 (129.1×10 8 kg), followed by 2006 and 2007, which reached 113.2×10 8, 110.7×10 8, and 109.0×10 8 kg, respectively. Due to the differences of weather condition, grassland area and growth situation, there was a significant difference for the theoretical livestock carrying capacity in each county.
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    Cited: Baidu(49)
    Polyphenol oxidase activity and its relationship to the soil main fertilizer factor in west Songnen alkali grassland
    YUE Zhong-hui, WANG Bo-wen, WANG Hong-feng, YAN Xiu-feng
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (4): 251-255.  
    Abstract554)      PDF (354KB)(532)       Save
    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its relationship to the main soil fertility factors in west Songnen alkali grassland were examined. PPO activity was higher in bare and sparse vegetation spots, but lower in lush vegetation spots. The seasonal dynamics of PPO activity varied in different spots. PPO activity was highly correlated with fertility factors except for potassium nutrition and the most important factor was total salt. PPO activity could be used to show changes of total salt, pH value, total N, available P and organic matter.
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    Cited: Baidu(45)
    Research progress on effects of grazing on physical and chemical characteristics of grassland soil
    ZHANG Cheng-xia, NAN Zhi-biao
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2010, 19 (4): 204-211.  
    Abstract938)      PDF (426KB)(782)       Save
    The published literature was reviewed for effects of grazing on soil physical properties (bulk density, water infiltration) and chemical properties (soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus). The effects on soil properties were inconsistent because of the complexity and resilience of grassland soil ecosystems to perturbation. In general, because the impact of livestock trampling led to increased soil bulk density as grazing intensities increased, and to reduced soil infiltration and water holding capacity, although this phenomenon decreased as soil layers increased. Soil bulk density may decrease in sandy soil with lower organic matter content, because overgrazing reduces soil organic matter thus influencing the stability of soil aggregates and resulting in a collapsed soil structure. The transformation process of organic matter is very complicated because the effects of grazing on soil organic matter are affected by many factors, such as temperature, precipitation, vegetation, soil and management measures (e.g. continuous grazing, rotation grazing, and enclosure). The effects of grazing on soil organic matter is not consistent in the published literature: It may increase, decrease, or have no-effect. Livestock interacts with soil nitrogen content of grassland by feeding, trampling and excreting. Based on reported literature, total nitrogen may be increased and decreased or show no change as grazing intensity is increased. The effect of grazing on soil phosphorus is different. Soil total phosphorus is reduced while available phosphorus is increased as grazing intensity is increased. However, some researchers report that soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus of grasslands have little change under long-term grazing conditions. Overgrazing is the most common cause of soil degradation. The awareness of this process and mechanism of overgrazing is of great significance for curbing grassland degradation and achieving sustainable development of grassland animal husbandry.
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    Cited: Baidu(45)
    Response and drought resistance of four leguminous pastures to drought during seed germination
    QIN Wen-jing, LIANG Zong-suo
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2010, 19 (4): 61-70.  
    Abstract907)      PDF (1667KB)(658)       Save
    The biological and germination characteristics of four Leguminous pasture plants ( Vicia villosa, Astragalus adsurgens, Melilotus albus, Lespedeza hedysaroides) on the Loess Plateau were studied when under water stress. 1) The four species had different biological seed characteristics. Seed water content and seed imbibition rates of A. adsurgens and V. villosa were higher than those of the other two species while seed vitality of L. hedysaroides and V. villosa were higher than the others. 2) As the drought intensified, total seed germination rate, seedling fresh weights, drought resistance index, growth of radical and plumule of the four species declined with M. albus showing the largest decline. 3) The low content PEG-6000 improved seed germination of L. hedysaroides, seedling growth of A. adsurgens, and those of the drought resistance index. 4) The comprehensive evaluation of the four species by the membership function method indicated that the drought resistances decreased in the order V. villosa, L. hedysaroides, A. adsurgens, and M. albus.
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    Cited: Baidu(44)
    Effects of different tillages on weed communities in winter wheat fields
    GAO Zong-jun, LI Mei, GAO Xing-xiang, GUO Xiao, SUN Ting-lin, ZHAO Wei
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2011, 20 (1): 15-21.  
    Abstract910)      PDF (440KB)(1891)       Save
    The effects of rotary tillage with no stubble (RT), rotary tillage with straw incorporation (RTS), no-till without stubble (NT), no-till with 6 000 kg/ha (NTS 6000), and no-till with 3 000 kg/ha (NTS 3000), on weed communities structure and species diversity was studied in field experiments using a community ecology method. Compared with RT, the NT, NTS 3000, and NTS 6000 treatments increased perennial weed species, but there was no significant difference in the species richness. NT, NTS 3000 and NTS 6000 significantly reduced the summed dominance ratio (SDR) of Lithospermum arvense, but increased the SDR of Capsella bursa-pastoris. RTS significantly reduced the SDR of L. arvense, but increased the SDR of Descurainia sophia. The species diversity of weed communities varied significantly between different tillage systems. The Bray-Curtis index and hierarchical cluster analysis classified the weed communities of different tillage systems into two categories: CategoryⅠ(NT, NTS 6000 and NTS 3000) where no-till was implemented, and category Ⅱ (RTS and RT) where rotary tillage was implemented. The species richness of categoryⅠwas a little larger than that of category Ⅱ, but the species diversity and community evenness were much larger than those of category Ⅱ. However, the community dominance of category Ⅰwas significantly smaller than that of category Ⅱ.
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    Cited: Baidu(44)
    Effects of fresh alfalfa forage on the dressing performance and meat quality of Boer goat
    Effects of fresh alfalfa forage on the dressing performance and meat quality of Boer goatLIU Quan-wei, WANG Cheng-zhang, YAN Xue-bing, HE Yun, WANG Yan-hua(School of Animal Science and Vetinary of Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China)
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2010, 19 (1): 158-165.  
    Abstract788)      PDF (551KB)(1289)       Save
    Forty-five 3-month-old and weighed [(18.00±1.01) kg] Boer goats were placed into five treatments. Goats were fed diets with 0%, 15%, 30%, 45% or 60% fresh alfalfa during the experimental period. Three healthy male lambs (aged 6 months) from each group, were slaughtered to study the effects of fresh alfalfa on carcass and meat quality. 1) Carcass weight (kg), dressing percentage (%) and lean meat percentage (%) of trialed groups are higher than those of the control group, although there was no marked difference with higher values in groupsⅠand Ⅱ. 2) The lowest pH values of breast meat ( P<0.01), shear force, muscle fibre diameter and stearic acid content ( P<0.05), as well as highest values of crude fatty acid, protein, linolenic acid ( P<0.01) and linoleic acid ( P<0.05) contents, were in group Ⅱ. The highest and the lowest values of physical and chemical traits were in the control group. 3) SOD content of group Ⅱ was highest and MDA content was lowest: The opposite to the control group. Fresh alfalfa forage not only reduced the characteristic smell of mutton, but increased its flavour and antioxidant activity. The optimal ratio of adding fresh alfalfa forage to the ration of Boer goat was 30%.
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    Cited: Baidu(43)
    The study of soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme avtivity on different grassland in Hulunbeier, Inner Mongolia
    WENDU Ri-le, LI Gang, ZHANG Jing-ni, LAI Xin, YI Jin, FAN Guo-yan, YANG Dian-lin
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2010, 19 (5): 94-102.  
    Abstract840)      PDF (814KB)(389)       Save
    In this study, 5 different types of grassland ( Filifolium sibiricum steppe, Stipa baicalensis steppe, Leymus chinensis steppe, Stipa grandis steppe, Stipa kryrowi steppe) in Hulunbeier were selected as the research object to analyze the variation of the soil physicochemical characteristics, soil microorganism, soil microbial biomass, soil enzyme activity and the inter-relationship among them. The results showed that the number of microorganisms in different types of grassland were in the same changing trends: bacteria>actinomycetes>fungi, but the number of each microorganism and composition reduced significantly ( P<0.05). The bacteria number in 5 different types of glasslands was L. chinensis steppe> S. baicalensis steppe> S. kryrowi steppe> F. sibiricum steppe> S. grandis steppe, the fungi number was S. kryrowi steppe> L. chinensis steppe> F. sibiricum steppe> S. baicalensis steppe> S. grandis steppe, the actinomycetes number was F. sibiricum steppe> S. kryrowi steppe> L. chinensis steppe> S. baicalensis steppe> S. grandis steppe. Soil microbial biomass C, N (SMBC, SMBN) reduced significantly ( P<0.05) in different grasslands. The microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in F. sibiricum steppe soil were significantly higher than others ( P<0.05), soil microbial biomass C and N in S. grandis steppe and L. chinensis steppe were lower. Results also showed that soil activitiey reduced significantly ( P<0.05) in different grasslands with 0-10 cm higher than 0-20 cm in the vertical distribution. Soil activitoes of catalase and invertase activities of F. sibiricum steppe were significantliy higher than S. grandis steppe, S. baicalensis steppe; Soil urease activity of S. kryrowi steppe was the highest and significantly different from S. grandis steppe, F. sibiricum steppe, soil phosphatase activity in L. chinensis steppe was the highest and significantly different from others. Correlation analysis indicated that soil microbe quantity, soil microbial biomass, soil enzyme activity and soil physicochemical characteristics in different grasslands had different degrees of correlation. The regression formula indicated that soil microbial biomass C increased with soil moisture, bacteria quantity but decreased with soil phosphatase activity; soil microbial biomass N increased with soil hydrogen peroxidase activities, but decreased with soil phosphatase activity and soil bulk.
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    Cited: Baidu(43)
    Assessment of vegetation by object-oriented classification and integration of decision tree classifier in Yushu
    WANG Zhi-wei, SHI Jian-zong, YUE Guang-yang, ZHAO Lin, NAN Zhuo-tong, WU Xiao-dong, QIAO Yong-ping, WU Tong-hua, ZOU De-fu
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2013, 22 (5): 62-71.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20130508
    Abstract924)   HTML1)    PDF (2157KB)(789)       Save
    The classification of vegetation has attracted much attention for study of ecological effects on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Previous studies have mostly focused on decision tree classifiers, and much research has been done to test this classification on a small scale. In this study, we consider a large scale method (object-oriented classification), which can also be integrated with a conventional decision tree classifier. However, the rules of classification have only utilized the information from decision tree classifiers. This approach comprehensively considered information of position, terrain and texture from TM (thematic mapper), DEM (digital elevation model), EVI (enhanced vegetation index) and LST (land surface temperature) in Yushu, and then segmented or merged the type of steppe. The overall accuracy is 49.32%, and Kappa coefficient is 0.373 5. Our study suggested that this method could overcome the disadvantages of scattered pixels when division is by the type of vegetation. Compared to the conventional decision tree classifier, the overall precision of our method is low. However our method maintained the statistical relationship between factors derived from the environment and geography, and vegetation types to reduce the salt and pepper effects. In addition, the physical process, parameter calculations and environmental factor collection of vegetation models are complicated. In this paper, a simple and quick way of division of vegetation types is provided by our method.
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    Cited: Baidu(42)
    Regional characteristics of the alpine meadow degradation succession on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
    WANG Jian-bing, ZHANG De-gang, CAO Guang-min, TIAN Qing
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2013, 22 (2): 1-10.  
    Abstract167)      PDF (1130KB)(425)       Save
    The degradation succession characteristics of alpine meadow on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were studied comprehensively from 2005 to 2012. The results indicated that the typical zonal vegetation on Qinghai-Tibaten Plateau was Gramineae and Kobresia humilis community. The degraded grassland in Guoluo of Qinghai Province was characterized with large-scale erosion of mattic epipedon in Kobresia pygmaea community and forbs-black soil. It was at the stage of succession from K. humilis to K. pygmaea community in Yushu of Qinghai Province. The alpine meadow successes from K. humilis to K. pygmaea community, or it remains the normal K. pygmaea community in the north part of Tibetan Plateau. The reduced excellent edible forage of Gramineae and Cyperaceae, and the increased forbs coverage were the main characteristic of alpine meadow degradation. Meanwhile, this degradation caused the increased soil compaction and the topsoil was more sensitive. The bulk densities of different layers in 0 to 10 cm, 10 to 20 cm and 20 to 40 cm were increased by (0.50±0.08) g/m 3, (0.16±0.07) g/m 3 and (0.04±0.03) g/m 3 respectively. Meanwhile, The soil organic matter content was greatly reduced by 19.3% to 53.2% and the reduction slowed down with the soil depth.
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    Cited: Baidu(42)
    Applying grey correlative degree analysis to comprehensively evaluate growth performance of 17 types of alfalfa with different fall-dormancy grades
    YANG Zhao, ZHANG Xin-quan, LI Xiang-lin, WAN Li-qiang, HE Feng
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (5): 67-72.  
    Abstract677)      PDF (463KB)(297)       Save
    In this study, adaptation performance characters such as biomass per plant, plant height, leaf length, leaf, width, regrowth rate, length of taproot, and crude protein content of 17 alfalfa varieties grown in the southwest area of Hunan province were measures and analyzed by the grey correlative system, to establish varieties assessment models. The alfalfa varieties, including Millennium, Powerplant, and CW680, performed well in the study area, whereas the other varieties had relatively low adaptive productivities. The order of weight index in the grey correlation analysis was: CP>leaf length>leaf width>thick of stem>height length>regrowth rate>length of taproot>fresh/dry>rootstalk diameter>biomass per plant>number lateral root leaf/stem>root weight. These Results offer scientific evidence for introducing and extending alfalfa production in sub-tropical regions of south China.
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    Cited: Baidu(42)
    An overview and prospects for grassland adaptive management in China
    HOU Xiang-yang, YIN Yan-ting, DING Yong
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2011, 20 (2): 262-269.  
    Abstract138)      PDF (538KB)(519)       Save
    At present, grassland in China is severely deteriorating. Existing grassland management models cannot deal with the complexity and uncertainty in grassland ecosystems. As a framework for dealing with complex environmental management problems, adaptive management has been given close attention. This paper overviews the development of adaptive management in the world and analyzes the prospects for grassland management in China. There are several measures to be taken: 1) Stressing basic research on the theory of ecosystems; 2) Integrating multi-dimensional knowledge; 3) Developing an appropriate grassland management model; 4) Building digital grassland information networks. All these are important aspects of implementing grassland adaptive management, providing the basis for grassland management and conservation.
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    Cited: Baidu(41)
    Effects of different conservation tillage on amount and distribution of soil ammonifying bacteria, nitrobacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria
    ZHAO You-yi, CAI Li-qun, WANG Jing, ZHANG Ren-zhi
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (4): 125-130.  
    Abstract605)      PDF (770KB)(519)       Save
    Field experiments were conducted in Dingxi, in the western Loess Plateau, on the effects of tillage on soil ammonifying bacteria, nitrobacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria under a rotation system with spring wheat and pea. The treatments were conventional tillage and three conservation agriculture patterns: Conventional tillage (T), conventional tillage with stubble incorporation (TS), no till with no straw cover (NT), no till with straw cover (NTS) The amount of soil ammonifying bacteria, nitrobacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria from high to low was NTS, TS, NT, and T in the 0-5, 5-10, and 10-30 cm depths of soil under two rotation fields. The amounts of soil ammonifying bacteria in NTS at these three depths was 76.21%,146.92%,67.82% respectively, higher than that in NT. Soil nitrobacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria initially increased, then decreased in all treatments in spring wheat fields. However, soil nitrogen-fixing bacteria decreased with soil depth, while nitrobacteria initially increased, then decreased in pea fields. Ammonifying bacteria decreased with soil depth in NTS and TS, but initially increased, then decreased in NT and T.
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    Cited: Baidu(40)
    Effects of soil water stress on seedling growth and water use efficiency of two desert shrubs
    FENG Yan, WANG Yan-rong, HU Xiao-wen
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2011, 20 (4): 293-298.  
    Abstract110)            Save
    Seedling growth, water use efficiency and leaf carbon isotope composition (δ 13C value) of Zygophyllum xanthoxylum and Caragana korshinskii were measured at different soil water stress levels in a pot experiment. The correlation between growth and water use efficiency was analyzed. 1) Severe water stress seriously decreased the total biomass, above ground biomass, total leaf area and leaf number of Z. xanthoxylum and C. korshinskii; 2) As water stress increased, water use efficiency and the δ 13C value increased. Water use efficiency and the δ 13C value had a significant ( P<0.05) positive relationship; 3) Water use efficiency had a significant negative relationship with total leaf area, leaf number( P<0.01), and total biomass( P<0.05);4) The biomass and total leaf area of C. korshinskii were significantly smaller than those of Z. xanthoxylum, but the root/shoot ratio was bigger. C. korshinskii is sensitive to water stress and its biomass, leaf area and leaf number are considerably reduced by this stress;5) Under the same water stress gradient, water use efficiency of C. korshinskii is lower but the δ 13C value is higher than those of Z. xanthoxylum.
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    Cited: Baidu(38)
    Effects of long-term conservation tillage on soil physical quality of rainfed areas of the Loess Plateau
    ZHANG Ren-zhi, LUO Zhu-zhu, CAI Li-qun, HUANG Gao-bao, LI Ling-ling, XIE Jun-hong
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2011, 20 (4): 1-10.  
    Abstract132)      PDF (580KB)(290)       Save
    Long-term field experiments on soil physical quality in rainfed farming systems were conducted in Dingxi on the western Loess Plateau. The effects of conventional tillage and five conservation agriculture patterns [conventional tillage (T), conventional tillage with stubble incorporation (TS), no till with no stubble (NT), no till with stubble retention (NTS), conventional tillage with plastic mulching (TP) and no till with plastic mulching (NTP)] were studied. The experiment was fully-phased with two rotation sequences. Phase 1 started with field pea ( Pisum sativum) followed by spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum) (P→W) whereas phase 2 started with spring wheat followed by field pea (W→P). There were highly significant differences between the six tillage measures in soil properties including soil aggregates, available water content, water use efficiency and saturation conductivity. There were also significant differences in some soil properties including soil bulk density, total porosity, capillary porosity, non-capillary porosity, soil strength and saturation capacity. There were no significant differences in soil properties such as soil temperature and field capacity. Using the addition and multiplication method, and weighted integrated method, quantitative assessments of soil physical quality in different tillage systems were carried out. The order of soil physical quality index from high to low was NTS, NTP, NT, TS, T(TP) and TP(T) in P→W rotation, and NTS, NTP, TS, NT, TP and T in W→P rotation. The various tillage measures resulted in very different soil physical quality levels. Improved soil structure arose from tillage reduction or residue retention which improved soil structure, enhanced water infiltration, reduced soil and water loss, and hence improved soil physical quality.
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    Cited: Baidu(37)
    Preliminary evaluation on salinity tolerance of excellent selections and cultivars of warm season turfgrass
    CHEN Jing-bo, YAN Jun, JIANG Yan-qin, GUO Hai-lin, ZHANG Ting-ting, CHEN Xuan, LIU Jian-xiu
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (5): 107-114.  
    Abstract584)      PDF (425KB)(524)       Save
    The salinity tolerance of fifty excellent selections and cultivars of warm season turfgrass belonging to five genera and twelve species was determined by leaf firing percentage in hydroponic culture. There were wide variations of salinity tolerance among the fifty selections and cultivars, and the total coefficient of variation (CV) reached 60%. CVs of the genera Zoysia and Cynodon reached 52% and 29%, respectively. Between species, the maximum variation occurred in species of Z. japonica and Z. sinica, where CVs reached 56% and 52%, respectively. Generally, accessions of Z. tenuifolia and Z. matrella had the best salinity tolerance. Paspalum vaginatum ‘Adalayd’, Stenotaphrum secundatum ‘S004’, and some accessions of Z. japonica and Z. sinica were more saline tolerant. Accessions of Cynodon and other accessions of Zoysia were intermediate or low in tolerance. Two accessions of Eremochloa ophiuroides were salt-sensitive. In the genus Zoysia there was better salinity tolerance than in the control cultivars in seven and twelve accessions of ‘Manilagrass’ and ‘Lanyin No. 3’, respectively. Most accessions of Cynodon were more salinity tolerant than the control cultivars (‘Tifgreen’ and ‘Tifdwarf’ ) with the exception of ‘C158’, ‘Nanjing’ bermudagrass and ‘C610’. In total, the most salinity tolerant three selections or cultivars of the fifty accessions were Z. tenuifolia ‘Z160’, Z. matrella ‘Diamond’ and ‘Z075’.
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    Cited: Baidu(36)
    Effects of different film mulching on photosynthesis, transpiration rate and leaf water use efficiency of maize
    GAO Yu-hong, NIU Jun-yi, XU Rui, WANG Yan, LI Chang-jiang, QI Di
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2012, 21 (5): 178-184.  
    Abstract86)      PDF (778KB)(216)       Save
    To clarify the maize ( Zea mays) yield-increasing mechanism of whole film mulching, two lines of furrow sowing were done in arid and semi-arid areas. Field experiments were carried out in 2009 to study the effects of five methods of film mulching on photosynthesis rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), leaf water use efficiency (LWUE) and grain yield. The Pn and Tr were highest at the bell-mouthed stage with single-peaked curves. The Pn, Gs, LWUE and grain yield under whole film mulching of two lines of furrow sowing (QS) were significantly higher than those of mulching lines of furrow sowing (QL), semi-film mulching two lines of furrow sowing (BS), semi-film mulching of tiling bunch sowing (BP) and no film mulching of bunch sowing (CK). The Gs was significantly positively correlated with Pn and Tr, while Pn was significantly correlated with Tr. The grain yield was significantly positively correlated with Pn, Gs, LWUE from seeding stage to bell-mouthed stage and Tr from bell-mouthed stage to milking stage. The results also showed that the QS treatment improved grain yield by 24.17%, 27.15%, 44.52% compared with QL, BS, BP and CK respectively and is currently the optimum pattern for maize film mulching in the Longdong area.
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    Cited: Baidu(35)
    A study on mixed silage of alfalfa and maize straw
    SUN Xiao-long, ZHOU He, LI Ping, YU Zhu
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (5): 86-92.  
    Abstract652)      PDF (388KB)(469)       Save
    Maize straw and second cut alfalfa was completely mixed and treated with lactobacillus(LAB), cell wall degrading enzymes (ENZ), previous fermentation juice (PFJ), LAB and ENZ, PFJ and ENZ. Mixed ensiling maize straw and alfalfa improved the preservation of silage; all the different mixed ratio silages had a high fermentation quality; all the additives improved the fermentation quality further; there was little butyric acid in any of the silages. All the pH values were less than, or close to, 4.2. The ENZ+LAB treatment was the best, and its V-Score was also the best of the treatments. The ENZ treatment significantly ( P<0.05) reduced NDF content by 3.77% and CP content ( P<0.05) by 6.0% in the 7∶3 mixed ration.
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    Cited: Baidu(34)
    Effects of salicylic acid on seed germination and physiological characters of cauliflower seedlings under salt stress
    WANG Yu-ping, DONG Wen, ZHANG Xin, YANG Qian, ZHANG Feng
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2012, 21 (1): 213-219.  
    Abstract1290)      PDF (1201KB)(1444)       Save
    Effects of salicylic acid on salt stress-induced injuries were investigated during the stage of seed germination and seedling growth of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). Under the stress, presoaking the seeds with 0.5-1.5 mmol/L of salicylic acid increased the germination percentage, germination energy, germination index and relative α-amylase activity of cauliflower. Among the treatment of salicylic acid, 1.0 mmol/L had the best effect. The results also showed that treatment with 0.5-1.5 mmol/L of salicylic acid during the stage of seedling growth under salt stress increased the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, chlorophyll contents, free proline and water dissolved-carbohydrate contents, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), and decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), suggesting that the exogenous SA (salicylic acid) could effectively mitigate the injuries of salt stress and increase salt-tolerance of cauliflower seeds and seedlings by increasing α-amylase activity, osmotic regulation and antioxidation. The best treatment concentration of salicylic acid was 1.0 mmol/L. When the concentration of SA was beyond 2.0 mmol/L, no mitigation effect was observed on the seeds germination and growth of seedling under salt stress.
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    Cited: Baidu(34)
    Review of soil seed bank studies——soil seed bank function in natural ecosystem
    SHANG Zhan-huan, XU Peng-bin, REN Guo-hua, LONG Rui-jun
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (2): 175-183.  
    Abstract699)      PDF (457KB)(562)       Save
    Soil seed banks have an important significance in vegetation systems. Memory is an important function of soil seed banks since it can reflect the history and process of vegetation succession, and be used as a means to trace vegetation development. A main use of soil seed banks is in vegetation restoration, so soil seed banks have been widely used by restoration workers. Normal vegetation regeneration depends on the potential vegetation supply of soil seed banks and that determines the trend of vegetation succession or development. In a degraded vegetation system, the theory and technology of soil seed bank donors should be emphasized in studies as a significant base from which to practice and rebuild soil seed bank function (SSBF) for vegetation restoration.
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    Cited: Baidu(33)
    Effects of oat mixed with common vetch on the microorganism populations in rhizosphere soil
    WANG Xu, ZENG Zhao-hai, ZHU Bo, HU Yue-gao, LIN Ye-chun,
    CHEN Gong, LU Jin-sheng, YUAN Xi-lan
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2009, 18 (6): 151-157.  
    Abstract792)      PDF (571KB)(669)       Save
    The population of rhizosphere microorganisms under oat( Avena sativa) and common vetch( Vicia sativa) was studied in different planting modes.The populations of rhizosphere bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes increased under oat through the jointing stage to the flowering stage then gradually decreased with oat growth. The population of rhizosphere bacteria under oat mixed with common vetch was significantly greater than that under oat monoculture ( P<0.05) at different growth stages of oat. At harvest, the populations of rhizosphere bacteria under different treatments were dominant. The population of rhizosphere bacteria under the mixture of oat and common vetch was 1.1 times more than that under oat monoculture. Compared with that under oat monoculture, the population of rhizosphere bacteria under common vetch monoculture was 1.3 times higher. In mixtures, an intercropping ratio of oat and common vetch of 1∶2 had the greatest populations of rhizosphere microorganisms, whereas oat monoculture had the least. The mixture of oat and common vetch was beneficial for increasing the populations of rhizosphere microorganisms.
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