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    Dynamic simulation of landscape change using VDDT in Hongyuan County
    ZHANG Xue-Lian, GAN Xiao-Yu, DAO Li-Gang, ZHANG Hong-Xuan, DONG Kui, YOU Cheng-Ming, FU Pei-Bin, GAN You-Min
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2015, 24 (5): 217-223.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20150525
    Abstract5825)   HTML12)    PDF (1079KB)(1070)       Save
    Based on remote sensing images of Hongyuan County collected between 2000 and 2010, a landscape classification map and grassland resource database were produced using ENVI software. In addition, 9 disturbance types were chosen to simulate the landscape succession to the year 2020 using the United States department of Agriculture Vegetation Dynamics Development (VDDT) tool based on the transition probability for 2000-2001. The results showed that: 1) In the 20 years, grassland decreased by about 824 km 2, and forest by 191 km 2, however, the unutilized area was predicted to increase by about 89 km 2; 2) The VDDT tool provided an acceptable simulation of the landscape succession as indicated by the Hongyuan County land use maps for 2000 and 2010 [ R 2=0.9325(Area), R 2=0.8833(Number)]; 3) The simulation showed an obvious degeneration trend for grassland in Hongyuan county. Factors affecting the future landscape pattern and rate of grassland degeneration were also analyzed.
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    Effects of molasses and acetic acid on fermentation and aerobic stability of total mixed ration silage in Tibet
    QIU Xiao-yan,YUAN Xian-jun,GUO Gang,WEN Ai-you,YU Cheng-qun,BA Sang,SHAO Tao
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2014, 23 (6): 111-118.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20140614
    Abstract5673)   HTML4)    PDF (472KB)(1043)       Save
    An experiment was undertaken to study the effects of acetic acid or/and molasses on the quality of fermented total mixed ration silage. Treatments: silage fermented without additive (control), with acetic acid (0.3% fresh matter basis), with molasses (3% fresh matter basis), or with acetic acid+molasses. There were 20 silos per treatment. All silos were opened 45 d after ensiling; five silos per treatment were analysed to determine fermentation characteristics, the remaining silos were exposed to air for 12 d to evaluate aerobic stability. After 45 dall silages were of good quality having high lactic acid concentration, low ammonia/total nitrogen, low butyric acid and very little propionic acid. During aerobic exposure, lactic acid, acetic acid and water soluble carbohydrate tended to decrease in all silages. The pH of the control and molasses treated silages increased significantly to 5.70 and 6.50 respectively and ammonia/total nitrogen and yeast counts were higher than the acetic acid and acetic acid+molasses treatments after 12 days of exposure. However, adding acetic acid reduced ammonia/total nitrogen compared with the control. Lactic acid content in the acetic acid and acetic acid+molasses silages increased during the early stages of aerobic exposure and then slowly decreased. Undesirable bacteria and yeast counts in the acetic acid treatment remained at low levels during aerobic exposure and the pH remained at about 4.50. It is concluded that adding 0.3% acetic acid maintained fermentation quality and improved the aerobic stability of fermented total mixed ration silage.
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Fermentation and aerobic stability of mixed ration forages in Tibet
    WANG Yong,YUAN Xian-jun,GUO Gang,WEN Ai-you,WANG Jian,XIAO Shen-hua,YU Cheng-qun,BA Sang,SHAO Tao
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2014, 23 (6): 95-102.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20140612
    Abstract4241)   HTML0)    PDF (629KB)(842)       Save
    The objective of this study was to identify opportunities to improve the utilization of crop straw and forage resources in Tibet. The experiment was based on the total mixed ration (TMR) typically used in local dairy systems, comprising whole-crop corn and barley straw (TMR-1), comparing substitutes for whole-crop corn; alfalfa (TMR-2), whole-crop oat (TMR-3) or wheat straw (TMR-4) at different ratios. After 45 d fermentation, pH values of TMR-2, TMR-3 and TMR-4 treatments were significantly ( P<0.05) higher than that of TMR-1, while corresponding lactic acid contents were lower. Propionic acid and butyric acid were very low in all treatments except TMR-1 and ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen was <100 g/kg TN, indicating that fermentation was good in all treatments. Water-soluble carbohydrate content in all treatments was significantly lower ( P<0.05) after 45 d of fermentation. The dry matter content of all treatments except TMR-1 remained constant,while crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and ether extract increased in all treatments. The crude protein content of TMR-2 and TMR-3 were above 15%, sufficient for dairy production. During aerobic exposure, lactic acid, acetic acid and water-soluble carbohydrate content of all treatments declined. Propionate and butyrate content initially increased after three days of aerobic exposure and then gradually decreased in all treatments. After 9 d of aerobic exposure, the pH increased but the increase was minimal in TMR-3, indicating good aerobic stability. It was concluded that TMR-3 group could be used to produce TMR in Tibet.
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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    Identification and characterisation of Sclerotinia homoeoparpa causing leaf blight in 4 warm-season turfgrass species
    ZHANG Wu, LIU Guodao, NAN Zhibiao
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2015, 24 (1): 124-131.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20150116
    Abstract4140)   HTML5)    PDF (1080KB)(999)       Save
    This paper reports on field disease surveys carried out at several golf courses and college lawns in Hainan Province from 2011 to 2013. A serious disease similar to Dollar Spot was observed which affected 4 common warm-season turfgrass species. Based on comprehensive analyses including Koch’s postulates tests, the identification of morphological characteristics and rDNA-ITS sequencing, the pathogen causing Dollar Spot disease in Hainan province was identified as Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. To our knowledge, this is the first report that S. homoeocarpa can cause Dollar Spot in Burmudagrass and Carpetgrass in China. Biological characteristics analysis showed that S. homoeocarpa grew well in conditions where the temperature ranged from 25-30℃ and pH from 5-7. The optimum growth conditions were 28℃ and pH 5. Hyphallost their viability in agar plugs that were incubated at 55℃ for 10 minutes. Light promoted mycelium growth and all the tested carbon and nitrogen sources were utilized by S. homoeocarpa. Soluble starch had higher usage efficiency for mycelium growth than the other carbon sources, whereas D-mannitol and D-arabinose had lower usage efficiency. Ammonium nitrate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate had higher usage efficiency for mycelium growth than the other nitrogen sources, whereas carbamide had lower usage efficiency.
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    Isolation and identification of low temperature-tolerant lactic acid bacteria from legume silages in Tibet
    YANG Xiao-Dan, YUAN Xian-Jun, GUO Gang, CUI Zhao-Ming, LI Jun-Feng, BAI Xi, BA Sang, SHAO Tao
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2015, 24 (6): 99-107.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2014312
    Abstract4118)   HTML2)    PDF (1088KB)(922)       Save
    The objectives of this study were to identify lactic acid bacteria with desirable attributes by isolating and identifying lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from legume silages in Tibetan Plateau. A total of 6 homofermentiative lactic acid bacteria were isolated from alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) and common vetch ( Vicia sativa) silage. Strains LCG9, CG35 and AG11 were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus, strains LCG3 and LAG1 as Lactobacillus plantarum and strain LA3 as Lactobacillus curvatu. Conventional microbial identification methods and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses were used to identify different strains. The selected strains were grown in a range of conditions; temperature 5-20℃, pH 3.0-8.0 and NaCl 3.0% and 6.5%. LCG9 and AG11 grew weakly at 5℃ while LCG9 and AG11 were inactive at pH 3.0 and pH 8.0. LCG3 was identified as the best strain to use as a silage additive in Tibet due to its unique tolerance of low temperature, high lactic acid production and rapid reproductive rate.
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    Quality of mixed naked oats ( Avena nuda) and alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) silage
    GE Jian, YANG Cui-Jun, YANG Zhi-Min, BAI Xue-Mei, ZHAO Hai-Xiang, LIU Gui-He
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2015, 24 (4): 104-113.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20150412
    Abstract4058)   HTML1)    PDF (588KB)(1243)       Save
    Using sun-dried or fresh alfalfa and naked oats as materials, five silages, including alfalfa silage, naked oats silage, three mix silage, (alfalfa∶naked oats =1∶1, alfalfa∶naked oats =1∶2 and alfalfa∶naked oats =2∶1), were prepared. After 60 days ensiling, the sensory score, fermentation quality and nutrition composition of silages were evaluated. The results revealed that silage made of fresh alfalfa showed a common performance in the sensory score and V-Score and Kaiser-Score evaluation system, while both silage made of sun-dried materials and mixed silage had a improved silage score. Sun-drying and mixing process had effect on silage quality, such as decreasing pH value, acetic acid (AA), propionic acid (PA), butyrate acid (BA) and ammonia nitrogen /total nitrogen (AN/TN) ( P<0.01 or P<0.05) content of silages, significantly increasing lactate (LA) content ( P<0.01or P<0.05) of silages. Among which, mixed silage of alfalfa and naked oats with a ratio of 2∶1 showed a biggest increasing and decreasing describe above. The sun-drying process had a significantly effect on the dry matter (DM), water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and crude ash (Ash) content of silage, while had no effect on remaining nutrients. Notably, mixing process had significant effects on most of fermentative indexes, such as the content of crude protein (CP), water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ( P<0.05 or P<0.01), whereas had no effect on other nutrient indexes. In conclusion, the interaction of sun-drying process to silage materials and mixed ratio can improve silage quality, while had no effect on nutrient composition of silages. According to the sensory score, fermentation quality, and nutrient content, the mixed and sun-dried materials can produce better silages than sole and fresh material, and silage made of naked oats and alfalfa with a ration of 2∶1 was the best.
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    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080619
    Effect of adding acetic acid on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of mixed oat and alfalfa silage in Tibet
    LI Jun-feng,SUN Xiao-hui,YUAN Xian-jun,GUO Gang,XIAO Shen-hua,BA Sang,YU Cheng-qun,SHAO Tao
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2014, 23 (5): 271-278.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20140532
    Abstract3871)   HTML5)    PDF (1329KB)(806)       Save

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding acetic acid on the fermentation qualities and aerobic stability of mixed silage of oat and alfalfa. The treatments were as follows: control (CA) and three treatments of different acetic acid addition ratios (0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5% of fresh weight). These silos were opened 30, 45 and 60 days after ensiling and the fermentation quality was analyzed. Then other silos were opened 60 days after ensiling and exposed to the air, and the aerobic stability was analyzed. Addition of acetic acid significantly (P<0.05) decreased the pH value of mixed silage, and the pH values of 0.4% and 0.5% acetic acid addition silages were significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of 0.3% acetic acid addition silages. Lactic acid (LA) contents of all acetic acid addition silages were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of control after 60 days from ensiling, however, there was no significant (P>0.05) difference among all acetic acid silages. Acetic acid addition significantly (P<0.05) decreased the ratio of ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen (AN/TN), and there was a pH decline (P>0.05) with increased of acetic acid addition. Water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) contents of all silages with acetic acid added were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of the control, and 0.4% acetic acid addition silages showed the highest WSC content. During the first 10 days of aerobic exposure, the values of pH and AN/TN were stable in all silages, and those of silages with acetic acid added remained lower than these of control. After 10 days of aerobic exposure, the pH value of all silages increased, and that of the control significantly (P<0.05) increased. The contents of LA and WSC decreased generally during the aerobic exposure process; all acetic-acid-treated silages showed significantly (P<0.05) higher LA and WSC than control, and the silage with 0.4% acetic acid added always had the highest lactic acid content. From the above results it is suggested that 0.4% acetic acid addition is appropriate.

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    Cited: Baidu(9)
    Effects of exogenous nitric oixde on seed germination, physiological characteristics and active oxygen metabolism of Medicago truncatula under NaCl stress
    LIU Wenyu, YANG Hongwei, WEI Xiaohong, LIU Bo, WANG Gaoqiang, WU Weitao
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2015, 24 (2): 85-95.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20150211
    Abstract3859)   HTML0)    PDF (1415KB)(1300)       Save
    Medicago truncatula seeds were pre-soaked with 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 mmol/L sodium nitriprusside [SNP, a nitric oxide (NO) donor] solution to study the effects of nitric oxide on seed germination, physiological characteristics and active oxygen metabolism of M. truncatula under 2.0% NaCl stress. Damage to M. truncatula seeds caused by 2.0% NaCl stress was significantly alleviated in the presence of 0.1 mmol/L SNP. The seed germination percentage, germination energy, germination index and vigor index were increased 333.40%,79.64%,171.93% and 100.00%, respectively; while soluble sugar, protein and proline contents in seeds were increased by 21.1%, 42.3% and 123.1%, respectively. Starch content was decreased by 17.7%, amylase activity was increased by 29.7%, and MDA and O 2 - · contents were decreased by 21.8% and 27.2%, respectively. Activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX in seeds were increased by 28.6%, 43.1%, 56.2% and 60.3%, respectively. Seed germination, oxidative damage and the antioxidant enzyme activities in seeds decreased when seeds were treated with 0.3 mmol/L SNP. When the concentration of SNP solution was increased to 1.0 mmol/L, we observed an inhibitory effect on seed germination. Our results provide evidence that lower concentrations of SNP may alleviate damage to seeds caused by salt stress. Key components of the response are: decreased MDA and O 2 - · levels, increased proline level and antioxidant enzyme activities in seeds, with resultant promotion of starch and protein hydrolysis, expedition of seed germination.
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    Effects of partial substitution of mineral fertilizer by bio-fertilizer on yield, quality, photosynthesis and fertilizer utilization rate in broccoli
    LI Jie, JIA Haoyu, XIE Jianming, YU Jihua, YANG Ping
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2015, 24 (1): 47-55.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20150107
    Abstract3857)   HTML0)    PDF (457KB)(847)       Save
    The over-use of inorganic fertilizer in summer vegetable production leads to diminished vegetable quality, nutrient use inefficiency and groundwater pollution. It is not known whether the combined application of bio-fertilizer with mineral fertilizer can improve quality and yield. A field experiment with broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) has been under taken to investigate the effects of different combinations on quality, yield, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium distribution rates, fertilizer utilization rate and photosynthesis. Three different rates (60%, 80% and 100%) of the conventional doses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (CF) were combined with bio-fertilizer (CK) in 6 treatments as follows: 60% CF without bio-fertilizer (60CF), 60% CF with bio-fertilizer (60CFB), 80% CF without bio-fertilizer (80CF), 80% CF with bio-fertilizer (80CFB), 100% CF without bio-fertilizer (100CF) and 100% CF with bio-fertilizer (100CFB). These treatments were applied to the crop in a randomized complete block design with three replicates.The head weight of broccoli with bio-fertilizer treatments significantly increased compared to that of sole mineral fertilizer treatments. The bio-fertilizer treatments’ utilization rates and uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were also higher. Compared with 100CF, the yield under 80CFB increased, whereas the yield under 60CFB decreased. Compared with 100CF treatment, the nitrate content in the broccoli head decreased significantly, while the vitamin C and soluble sugar contents significantly increased under lower CF and bio-fertilizer treatments. Nitrogen uptake was highest in the functional leaf of broccoli with 80CFB and in the head of broccoli with 100CF. Under the treatments with bio-fertilizer, the photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance increased, whereas intercellular CO 2 leaf concentrations reduced. These results demonstrated that the 750 kg/ha bio-fertilizer combined with 80% conventional mineral fertilizer can improve broccoli head quality, fertilizer utilization rate and photosynthesis.
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    Cited: Baidu(8)
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080604
    Nitrogen cycling in grassland ecosystems in response to climate change and human activities
    YAN Zhong-qing,QI Yu-chun,DONG Yun-she,PENG Qin,SUN Liang-jie,JIA Jun-qiang,CAO Cong-cong,GUO Shu-fang,HE Yun-long
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2014, 23 (6): 279-292.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20140634
    Abstract3832)   HTML14)    PDF (587KB)(1570)       Save
    As an important component of proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and chlorophyll nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for ecosystem function. Many large research programs undertaken by the International Geosphere and Biosphere Program (IGBP) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have included the N cycle as part of their core research. Globally, grassland ecosystems play an extremely important role in maintaining global and regional ecological balance. To date, few studies on the response of the N cycle to global changes have been conducted. There is some urgency to determine the effect of elevated atmospheric CO 2 and temperature, precipitation change, nitrogen deposition and human activities (grazing, cultivation, fire, etc.) on the N cycle in grasslands. This paper reviews research progresses in China and globally on the effects of global change and human activities on the key N cycle processes in grassland ecosystems. Additionally, issues requiring research emphasis are identified.
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    Cited: Baidu(21)
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080621
    The important role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in carbon storage in grassland ecosystems
    ZHANG Feng, NAN Zhi-Biao, YAN Fei-Yang, LI Fang, DUAN Ting-Yu
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2015, 24 (4): 191-200.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20150422
    Abstract3705)   HTML6)    PDF (684KB)(1182)       Save
    Grassland ecosystems occupy an important position in global carbon storage. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) exist widely in these grasslands and play a significant role in the ecosystem’s ability to act as carbon sinks. This paper summarizes this role from the perspective of the fungi’s functional diversity. It reviews, 1) the impact of AMF on the net primary productivity of grassland ecosystems, 2) their impact on variation in the soil carbon pool, 3) the response of AMF to elevated atmospheric CO 2 and increased anthropogenic nitrogen deposition, and 4) how grazing management practices could affect AMF and therefore the carbon cycle of grassland systems. This review is undertaken in order to provide references for evaluating carbon sinks, calculating carbon fixation rates, predicting carbon storage and coping with global climate change.
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    Effect of soil bulk density on root morphology and biomass of vetiver grass seedlings
    LIU Wan-Gou, LI Liang-Xian, XIE Hai-Rong, HE Yong-Yi, LIU Jin-Xiang
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2015, 24 (4): 214-220.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20150425
    Abstract3697)   HTML3)    PDF (796KB)(1188)       Save
    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) has an extensive root system and is consequently used worldwide for water and soil conservation. However, soil compaction resulting in high soil bulk density negatively influences root growth. In order to understand the adaptation of vetiver grass to soil compaction, the effects of soil of different bulk density, 1.20 g/cm 3 (D 1.20), 1.35 g/cm 3 (D 1.35) and 1.58 g/cm 3 (D 1.58), on the root morphology and biomass of vetiver seedlings were investigated using soil columns. The results showed that shoot and root dry weight, root:shoot ratio, root surface area, root length density and root volume density decreased with increasing bulk density, but that average root diameter increased. High bulk density influenced the spatial distribution of roots; more roots grew in the upper (0-6 cm) and lower (18-24 cm) soil horizons under the D 1.20 and D 1.35 treatments, suggesting that vetiver typically produces a deep root system but that root growth is inhibited by high soil bulk density, confining roots to the upper soil horizon (0-6 cm). The average root diameter in the D 1.20 and D 1.35 treatments decreased but increased in D 1.58 with increasing soil depth. It is concluded that vetiver grass could tolerate moderately compacted soil.
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    Cited: Baidu(8)
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080601
    Nutrient content of soils under artificial grass vegetation in the urban hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region
    YANG Yu-Jing, LI Chang-Xiao, MA Peng
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2015, 24 (4): 1-11.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20150401
    Abstract3659)   HTML1)    PDF (1118KB)(1160)       Save
    A study has been undertaken to explore the dynamics of soil chemical properties under different water-logging durations following re-vegetation in the urban hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. The study also aimed to determine the potential impact of vegetation reconstruction on water quality. Soil samples were taken from Hemarthria compressa, Cynodon dactylon and Saccharum spontaneum communities, and from non-vegetated areas in a hydro-fluctuation belt located in downtown Chongqing, in June 2012, March 2013, May 2013, July 2013 and September 2013. Analysis was undertaken of soil pH, organic matter (OM), alkali hydrolysable nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total potassium (TK). Results showed that vegetation type significantly influenced soil pH values and AN, AP and TP contents. No significant differences were found in the tested properties between soils without vegetation and those beneath the three types of artificial grasses. However, there were significant soil differences under different water-logging durations. pH values and OM contents fluctuated throughout the experiment. Soil pH ranged from 6.5 to 8.5. AN contents were relatively higher in March and September 2013, when the water level dropped, while maximum AP contents were found in June 2012. At that time, AP contents under bare areas, H. compressa, C. dactylon, and S. spontaneum were (2.62±0.30), (3.92±0.34), (1.08±0.16), and (1.24±0.06) mg/kg respectively. TP and TK contents increased in the later phases of the experiment. The study also showed that, besides vegetation and hydrological factors, other factors such as urban sewage discharge, human disturbance and point or non-point source pollution caused by surface runoff influenced soil pH and nutrients. For the Yangtze River in Chongqing urban areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, the potential risk of water eutrophication caused by artificial grasses might be lower.
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    Cited: Baidu(5)
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080505
    Changes in grassland yield and grazing pressure in the Three Rivers headwater region before and after the implementation of the eco-restoration project
    ZHANG Liang-xia,FAN Jiang-wen,SHAO Quan-qin,TANG Feng-pei,ZHANG Hai-yan,LI Yu-zhe
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2014, 23 (5): 116-123.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20140513
    Abstract3605)   HTML2)    PDF (1492KB)(757)       Save

    This paper reports on the impact of the Ecological Protection and Construction project in the Three Rivers headwater region. Grassland yield and grazing pressure have been calculated using the Global Production Efficiency Model (GLO-PEM) model and the Grazing Pressure Index. Data have been analysed and compared for the years before and after the project was initiated. Results indicate that the region’s mean grassland yield from 2005 to 2012, after project implementation, was 30.31% higher (694 kg/ha) than from 1988 to 2004, before the project began (533 kg/ha). Following the introduction of the livestock reduction program, the mean index of grazing pressure from 2003 to 2012 was 36.1% lower (1.46) than for the years 1988 to 2002 (2.49). The reasons for grassland recovery and grazing pressure reduction may be due to a combination of the Ecological Protection and Construction project and climate change. However, the ecological effectiveness of the project has clearly emerged.

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    Effect of adding an inoculant and molasses on fermentation quality of mixed silage of hull-lessbarley straw and perennial ryegrass in Tibet
    ZHAO Qing-jie,YUAN Xian-jun,GUO Gang,WEN Ai-you,BA Sang,WANG Qi,SHEN Zhen-xi,YU Cheng-qun,SHAO Tao
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2014, 23 (4): 100-106.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20140412
    Abstract3563)   HTML1)    PDF (1221KB)(740)       Save
    To evaluate the effect of adding an inoculant (LAB) or/and molasses (M) on the fermentation quality of mixed silage of hull-lessbarley straw and perennial ryegrass during ensiling,an experiment was designed with the following treatments: control,LAB,molasses and LAB+molasses. Six silos per treatment were opened 7,24 and 45 days after ensiling and the fermentation quality was measured. Adding LAB accelerated the onset of lactic acid fermentation; however,there were increases in butyric acid and ammonia/total N during the latter stage of ensiling due to the lack of fermentable substrate. The addition of molasses supplied the fermentative substrates,which improved the fermentation quality and significantly ( P<0.05) increased the lactic acid content,significantly ( P<0.05) reduced pH and decreased propionic and butyric acid contents. Combination addition of LAB and molasses significantly improved the fermentation quality of mixed silage compared with LAB addition alone,but there were no significant differences in fermentation quality between silages treated by M alone and by M plus LAB. It is concluded that the lack of fermentation substrate is the major limiting factor for mixed silage of hull-lessbarley straw and perennial ryegrass.
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    Cited: Baidu(11)
    Nutritional values of Italian ryegrass for growing rabbits
    SONG Zhong-qi,GAN You-min,TIAN Gang,JIN Hua,BO Zheng-xi,WANG Qiu-shuang,FU Pei-bin,WANG Yong
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2014, 23 (5): 352-358.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20140542
    Abstract3517)   HTML1)    PDF (1207KB)(721)       Save

    The experiment was carried out to evaluate the nutritional value of early flowering Italian ryegrass for growing rabbits. A total of 24 New Zealand rabbits at 60 days of age with an average weight of (2.20±0.32) kg were used in a completely randomized design, which consisted of 2 groups and 12 replicates in each group. A basal diet was formulated to meet requirements of growing rabbits and the experiment diet was formulated by substituting 20% of the basal diet with Italian ryegrass. Fecal apparent digestibility of major nutrients in Italian ryegrass for growing rabbits was measured. Both pre-trial and trial period was 7 days. The results showed: 1) Gross energy, dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, crude ash, Ca, total P and nitrogen free extract contents of Italian ryegrass were 16.78 MJ/kg, 92.24%, 10.20%, 1.64%, 26.09%, 51.80%, 31.35%, 7.72%, 0.66%, 0.28% and 46.59%, respectively. 2) The apparent digestible energy of Italian ryegrass was 7.21 MJ/kg. Apparent digestibility of gross energy, dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, crude ash, Ca, total P and nitrogen free extract in Italian ryegrass were 33.45%, 48.36%, 44.18%, 84.45%, 25.91%, 22.73%, 22.25%, 26.10%, 62.87%, 13.94% and 61.42%, respectively. In conclusion, contents of crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber are higher and contents of ether extract, total P are lower in Italian ryegrass. There are certain differences between the nutrient digestibility of Italian ryegrass for growing rabbits, the apparent digestibility of ether extract, crude fiber, Ca, nitrogen free extract are higher, while the apparent digestibility of total P is lower in the Italian ryegrass for growing rabbits.

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    Physiological responses of seedling roots of the desert plant Reaumuria soongorica to drought stress
    CHONG Peifang, LI Hangyi, LI Yi
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2015, 24 (1): 72-80.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20150110
    Abstract3512)   HTML0)    PDF (1234KB)(926)       Save
    The physiological responses of seedling roots to drought stress were investigated in the desert plant Reaumuria soongorica from two provenances: highly drought resistant (Wuwei) and weakly drought resistant (Lanzhou). Under drought stress, root vigor, relative permeability of plasma (RPP), contents of proline (Pro),soluble sugars (SS),soluble protein (SP),malondialdehyde (MAD) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT)were measured with two-year nursery stocks. Grey correlative analysis was used to analyse drought resistance and its correlation with indexes of roots. Root vigor decreased significantly under drought stress, while RPP and the contents of MDA, Pro, SS and SP, the activities of SOD, POD and CAT of roots increased significantly. Germplasm of highly drought-resistant provenance (Wuwei) was more sensitive to drought stress than germplasm of weakly drought-resistant provenance (Lanzhou). The grey correlative degrees for root vigor, RPP and Pro and drought resistance were greater than 0.9. However, R. soongorica enhanced drought resistance through a wider series of physiological variations, beyond these three.
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    The anatomical structure responses in alfalfa to salinity-alkalinity stress of NaHCO 3
    TIAN Chen-xia,ZHANG Yong-mei,WANG Kai,ZHANG Wan
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2014, 23 (5): 133-142.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20140515
    Abstract3488)   HTML1)    PDF (1677KB)(648)       Save

    Seedlings of alfalfa were treated with NaHCO3 solution at three different concentrations levels (0, 100 and 150 mmol/L) and anatomical structure characteristics of three organs (roots, stems and leaflets) were observed using paraffin section techniques and photomicrograpy. There was an obvious difference in the vascular system of alfalfa at different NaHCO3 levels. Vascular tissue throughout the roots, stems and leaflets was reduced compared to controls, conductive capability of phloem and xylem was also much reduced and in particular, transportation of water and dissolved ions absorbed by roots was greatly restrained. Changes in other tissues of vegetative organs were also observed. The NaHCO3 treatments made leaflets thin, with more influence on spongy tissue than on palisade tissues. Stem cross section became irregular in shape, epidermis cells became smaller and thinner, and cell wall cutinization appeared. Parenchyma cells of pith located in the center of stems were decreased in diameter, increased in number and the concentration of their inclusion was rasied. Saline and alkaline stress of NaHCO3 promoted growth of roots, root diameter of treated plants was significantly greaterthan controls, and the diameter of xylem vessels became smaller but number of xylem vessels was increased.

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    Effect of additive on fermentation quality of mixed silages of oat ( Avena sativa) and common vetch ( Vicia sativa) in Tibet
    ZHANG Jie,YUAN Xian-jun,GUO Gang,WEN Ai-you,WANG Jian,XIAO Shen-hua,BA Sang,YU Cheng-qun,SHAO Tao
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2014, 23 (5): 359-364.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20140543
    Abstract3451)   HTML2)    PDF (1268KB)(724)       Save

    This experiment evaluated the effects of adding lactic acid bacteria, potassium sorbate and molasses on the fermentation quality of oat and common vetch (7∶3) mixed silages. The additive treatments were as follows:(1) control (no addition), (2) lactic acid bacteria (L), (3) potassium sorbate addition at 0.15% (S), (4) molasses addition at 3% (M). These silos were opened on 30, 45 and 60 days after ensiling and the fermentation quality was analyzed. Addition of L, M and S were efficient in improving the fermentation quality of mixed silages compared with the control. There were significantly (P<0.05) higher lactic acid content, and lactic acid/acetic acid values in the M and L addition as compared with control and S addition, while the pH values, acetic acid, total volatile fatty acid content and ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen values of these two silages were significantly (P<0.05) lower than other two groups. M addition was slightly better than L addition for improving the fermentation quality of mixed silages. S addition greatly increased (P<0.05) lactic acid content and lactic acid/acetic acid values, and significantly (P<0.05) reduced the acetic acid, butyric acid content and ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen values as compared with the control, however there were no significant (P>0.05) differences between control and S-addition silages in pH values or propionic acid content. In conclusion, the improvement in fermentation quality with additives ranked as follows: M>L>S.

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    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080602
    Biological activities of eight herbicides against four grass weeds of wheat fields
    GAO Xing-xiang,LI Mei,FANG Feng,ZHANG Yue-li,QI Jun-shan
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2014, 23 (6): 349-354.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20140642
    Abstract3422)   HTML1)    PDF (552KB)(1008)       Save
    Pyroxsulam, flucarbazone-Na, pinoxaden, tralkoxydim and clodinafop-propargyl are newly registered herbicides in China. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these herbicides, compared with several commonly used herbicides, on four grass weed species in wheat fields. Key results were: 1) The acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicide pyroxsulam achieved 93.06% control on Poa annua and 82.82%-86.89% control on Puccinellia distans, Lolium multiflorum, Polypogon fugax (all herbicides applied at recommended field dose rates). 2) Other ALS inhibiting herbicides flucarbazone-Na and mesosulfuron-methyl achieved 61.27%-86.71% control on P. annua, but only 10.47%-29.43% control of P. distans, L. multiflorum and P. fugax. 3) In contrast, the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibiting herbicides pinoxaden, tralkoxydim and clodinafop-propargyl showed 85.41%-100.00% control on P. distans, L. multiflorum and P. fugax, and 19.08%-60.69% on P. annua. 4) The other ACCase inhibiting herbicide fenoxaprop-p-ethyl showed 99.60% control of P. fugax, 72.00% and 55.00% of P. distans and L. multiflorum, and 16.18% control of P. annua. 5) The plant photosystem Ⅱ inhibiting herbicide isoproturon also controlled P. annua, P. distans and P. fugax (88.15%-96.53% control), but showed poorer control of L. multiflorum (67.43%).
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    Cited: Baidu(1)
    The inoculant potential of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains to improve the yield and quality of Trifolium pratense cv. Minshan
    RONG Liang-yan,YAO Tuo,MA Wen-bin,LI De-ming,LI Ru-ren,ZHANG Jie,LU Sa
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2014, 23 (5): 231-240.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20140527
    Abstract3405)   HTML2)    PDF (1316KB)(768)       Save

    Interest in plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has increased due to their potential contribution to sustainable agricultural systems by reducing environmental impact, the consumption of non-renewable resources and input costs. This paper investigates the inoculant effect of PGPR on the hay yield and nutrient quality of Trifolium pratense cv. Minshan. Six PGPR and one rhizobia strains were identified by screening for phosphate solubilization, 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA) secretion and antagonism to plant pathogens. A PGPR inoculant was produced by mixing these strains and pot tests have been conducted to investigate its effects on the growth and quality of T. pratense cv. Minshan when combined with different amounts of chemical fertilizer. The results showed that the nitrogenase activity of the rhizobia strain was 488.2 C2H4 nmol/(mL·h). The phosphate solubilization and IAA secreting ability of the five PGPR strains was distributed across the ranges 50.34-229.5 mg/L and 0.86-12.01 μg/mL respectively. The PGPR compound bio-fertilizer demonstrated strong antagonism to the pathogens Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. cucumerinum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum f. niveum. The composite microbial inoculant complies with the quality standard for microbiological fertilizer in China (NY227-94). Applying the inoculant in combination with 75% of the control’s chemical fertilizers increased total hay yield by 4.76%. Nutrient quality also improved. The amount of crude protein, crude ash, calcium and phosphorus increased while the amount of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber declined. Applying the inoculant in combination with 50% of the control’s chemical fertilizers did not increase total hay yield, quality, or the isoflavone content of clover. The experiment has thus shown how the PGPR compound bio-fertilizer can be combined with chemical fertilizers to increase not only the yield and quality of T. pratense cv. Minshan but also the sustainability of agricultural systems.

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    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080503
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080501
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080611
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080502
    Effects of molasses addition on the fermentation quality of broccoli residue, rice straw and alfalfa mixed silage
    WANG Jian,WANG Ya-qin,WEN Ai-you,SHAO Tao
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2014, 23 (3): 248-254.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20140329
    Abstract3329)   HTML0)    PDF (451KB)(749)       Save
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding molasses on the fermentation of rice straw, alfalfa and broccoli residues mixture silage. The three treatments were: no molasses (control), and addition of 2.5% or 5.0% molasses (on a fresh weight basis). The silos were opened on 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 30 days after ensiling and the silage fermentation quality was evaluated. The pH of the control decreased slowly but after the first 14 days of post-ensiling, had significantly ( P<0.05) increased to 4.96 by day 30. The pH under molasses addition decreased significantly ( P<0.05) from 3 days of ensiling and was below 4.0 at the end of ensilage. The content of lactic acid in all treatments reached the highest value (50.82,84.84,86.64 g/kg DM, respectively) on day 14. The contents of acetic acid and volatile fatty acids in all treatments continuously increased until the end of the experiment. Propionic and butyric acids in all treatments were absent or detected in small amounts only during the ensiling period. Molasses addition significantly ( P<0.05) increased the ratios of lactic acid/acetic acid and also the contents of lactic acid, but significantly ( P<0.05) decreased pH, NH 3-N/TN and butyric content compared with the control. There were no significant differences in pH, lactic acid/acetic acid, lactic content, NH 3-N/TN and butyric content between treatments. In conclusion, molasses addition at 2.5% improved the ensiling fermentation of mixed ensilage of broccoli residue, rice straw and alfalfa.
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    Cited: Baidu(10)
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080515
    Analysis of the nutritional components and feeding values of commonly used roughages
    CHEN Yan, WANG Zhi-Sheng, ZHANG Xiao-Ming, WU Fa-Li, ZOU Hua-Wei
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2015, 24 (5): 117-125.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20150514
    Abstract3308)   HTML1)    PDF (468KB)(1070)       Save
    The nutrient composition of different roughages was evaluated using basic chemical analysis and the Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system (CNCPS). Nutrient composition was compared and feeding values calculated using the prediction formula for feeding quality evaluation. The results indicated that the contents of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), soluble crude protein (SCP), and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) in Lolium perenne, Hemarthria altissima and sweet potato stem were significantly higher than those in corn stover and rice straw. In contrast, contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) in L. perenne, H. altissima and sweet potato stem were significantly lower than those in corn stover and rice straw. The L. perenne and sweet potato stem had higher levels of sugar (CA) and rapidly degraded pure protein (PB 1) than the other roughages analyzed. Compared to corn stover and rice straw, H. altissima, L. perenne and sweet potato stem had higher levels of starch, pectin (CB1), non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and slowly degraded pure protein (PB 3). Rice straw had the highest levels of available fiber (CB 2), and corn stover had the highest levels of carbohydrate (CHO), unavailable fiber (CC) and intermediately degraded pure protein (PB 2). The amino acid (AA) components of the roughages were significantly different, with different potentials for supplying limiting amino acid (LAA). Among the roughages analyzed, L. perenne had the highest level of total amino acids (TAA), essential amino-acid (EAA) and LAA, while corn stover and rice straw had the lowest. L. perenne had higher levels of digestible dry matter (DDM) and relative feed value (RFV) than the other roughages. The contents of dry matter intake (DMI) and RFV in sweet potato stem were significantly higher than those in H. altissima, while the contents of DMI, DDM and RFV in corn stover and rice straw were the lowest levels, with no significant differences between them. Therefore, L. perenne has the highest nutrient value and H. altissima and sweet potato stem are mid-range, while corn stover and rice straw have the lowest nutrient value.
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    Cited: Baidu(8)
    Effects of wilting and additives on fermentation quality of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) silage
    LIU Hui, BU Deng-Pan, LV Zhong-Wang, LI Fa-Di, LIU Shi-Jie, ZHANG Kai-Zhan, WANG Jia-Qi
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2015, 24 (5): 126-133.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20150515
    Abstract3304)   HTML0)    PDF (439KB)(1036)       Save
    The effect of wilting and different additives on alfalfa silage fermentation and nutritive value were studied under laboratory conditions. Alfalfa (at the early bloom stage of maturity), wilting 3 and 12 h respectively, was ensiled at 72.6% and 61.8% moisture content either untreated (CK) or treated with inoculant (LAB), sugar beet pulp (SB), inoculant and sugar beet pulp (LAB+SB), sodium formate (SF) and the combination of sodium formate and sugar beet pulp (SF+SB). Silo was opened and analysed after 65 d of ensiling. The results showed that additives addition generally had an significantly effect on alfalfa silage characteristics in terms of lower pH and ammonia-N concentration ( P<0.01). Treated silage had a similar concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and dry matter recovery compared with untreated silage. The addition of sugar beet pulp (SB) greatly reduced crude protein concentrations ( P<0.05). Water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations were found increased in silage from alfalfa herbage treated with inoculant and sugar beet pulp combined and sodium formate prior to ensiling ( P<0.05). As silage wilting enhanced, silage quality was improved. In general, different additives had different effect on ensiling. Inoculant and sugar beet pulp combined (LAB+SB) was found to be the most effective additive.
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    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080510
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080516
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080519
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080504
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20080506