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    Identification, evolution and expression analysis of the CCoAOMT family genes in Medicago sativa
    Qian MA, Qi YAN, Zheng-she ZHANG, Fan WU, Ji-yu ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2021, 30 (11): 144-156.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020429
    Abstract727)   HTML29)    PDF (3463KB)(1363)       Save

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a forage legume with high feed quality widely cultivated all over the world. It contains lignins that play an important role in stress resistance of alfalfa. However, lignin seriously affects the nutritional value of alfalfa because it is difficult for livestock to digest. Therefore, it is necessary to breed alfalfa varieties with low lignin content. Caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is a key enzyme in the lignin synthesis pathway. In this study, the members of CCoAOMT gene family in the alfalfa genome were identified by bioinformatic methods, and the gene structure, chromosome location, phylogeny and gene expression were analysed. It was found that there were 44 MsCCoAOMT genes in the alfalfa genome. These genes were distributed on 16 chromosomes with tandem duplication, among which 36 (82%) MsCCoAOMT genes contained 5 exons. A phylogenetic tree was constructed and showed that MsCCoAOMT family genes can be classified into 5 groups. In addition, ten conserved motifs were found by predicting the motif of MsCCoAOMT protein with MEME software. qRT-PCR results indicated that most of MsCCoAOMT genes were tissue-specific in their expression. Our results provide reference information for the genetic improvement of alfalfa and development of lines with low lignin content.

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    Research progress on plant coumarin biosynthesis pathway and the genes encoding the key enzymes
    Zhen DUAN, Fan WU, Qi YAN, Ji-yu ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (1): 217-228.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020485
    Abstract1678)   HTML101)    PDF (967KB)(1214)       Save

    Coumarins, the important secondary metabolites of plants, derive from phenylpropanoids metabolism pathway, have a variety of biological activities and play an important role in plant growth and development and stress response. Here, the research progress of coumarin biosynthesis pathway and the genes encoding the key enzymes involved in coumarin biosynthesis were reviewed, and the phylogenetic evolution of the UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) gene family were analyzed. Moreover, the current research issues on coumarin biosynthesis were summarized and the future research directions were prospected in order to provide references for studying the coumarin biosynthesis and follow-up research.

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    Screening and identification of two potassium solubilizer strains and their effects on the yield and quality of alfalfa
    Yan-jia WANG, Bo-ang HU, Jia-xin CHEN, Li-ting XU, Lin YAO, Li-rong FENG, Chang-hong GUO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (12): 139-149.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023036
    Abstract150)   HTML11)    PDF (2822KB)(683)       Save

    The study aimed to isolate and screen high-efficiency potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB), and to quantify the effects of KSB application on plant yield and quality. The KSB strains were screened by silicate bacteria media from the rhizosphere soil of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and subsequently the strains were identified by morphological, 16S rDNA sequence, and physiological and biochemical analysis. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation with KSB strains on the yield and quality of alfalfa. Two high-efficiency KSB strains XLT-4 and XLT-7 were obtained with potassium solubilization rates of 10.53% and 9.75%>CK, and identified as Priestia megaterium and Peribacillus frigoritolerans, respectively. These two KSB strains had the metabolic capacity for phosphorus solubilization, siderophore-production and indole acetic acid secretion. Inoculation with XLT-4 and XLT-7 significantly increased plant height, root length, dry and fresh weight above ground and below ground, root activity, the contents of P, K and crude protein in leaves, while the contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were significantly lower than in CK plants. In addition, the inoculation of the two KSB also improved the enzyme activity and available potassium content in alfalfa rhizosphere soil. In this study, the two KSB strains made a major contribution to improving the yield and quality of alfalfa, and these two organisms are high quality strain resources for the development of microbial preparations.

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    An evaluation of a remote sensing method based on optimized triangular vegetation index (TVI) for aboveground shrub biomass estimation in shrub-encroached grassland
    Zheng-yong XU, Bin SUN, Wang-fei ZHANG, Yi-fu LI, Zi-yu YAN, Wei YUE, Si-han TENG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 1-14.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022488
    Abstract403)   HTML53)    PDF (2836KB)(604)       Save

    Shrub-encroachment onto grassland is becoming an important ecological problem in grassland ecosystems, and accurate estimation of the shrub above-ground biomass (AGB) in shrub-encroached grassland vegetation plays a significant role in research into regional ecosystem carbon cycles. Due to the dual effects of soil background noise and differences in vegetation growth structure characteristics, the traditional vegetation indices are extremely unstable for model-building involving shrub-encroached grassland AGB estimation. To solve this problem, in this study we developed a novel way by optimizing the triangular vegetation index (TVI) using Sentinel-2 remote sensing data for shrub-encroached grassland AGB estimation. The results showed that: 1) In the area dominated by herbaceous vegetation, TVI calculated using a combination of green, red-edge and near-infrared ( R 560 R 705 and R 865 ) performed best with an R2 of 0.684; in the area dominated by shrub vegetation, the TVI again performed best with R2= 0.368. 2) When analyzing the sensitivity of the 12 commonly used vegetation indexes to soil noise, the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) was the most sensitive to soil noise in the area dominated by herbaceous vegetation; in the area dominated by shrub vegetation, the modified soil adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI) was the most sensitive. 3) In the area dominated by herbaceous vegetation, the optimized vegetation index grassland triangular vegetation index (GTVI) performed better than TVI with the value of R C V 2 (coefficient of determination cross validation) increased by 0.153 and the value of R M S E C V decreased by 12.222 g·m-2; in the area dominated by shrub vegetation, GTVI performed better than TVI and the R C V 2 value increased 0.029, while the R M S E C V (root mean square error cross validation) decreased 1.684 g·m-2. 4) The estimation results acquired by GTVI showed the highest accuracy when compared with the results estimated by the commonly used 12 vegetation indices. The results of this study are expected to provide a scientific basis and reference AGB estimation in shrub-encroached grassland using vegetation indices extracted from remote sensing data.

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    Advance in shrub encroachment in arid and semiarid region
    PENG Hai-ying, LI Xiao-yan, TONG Shao-yu
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2014, 23 (2): 313-322.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20140237
    Abstract650)      PDF (1474KB)(1214)       Save
    Shrub encroachment is the increase in density, cover and biomass of indigenous woody or shrubby plants in arid and semiarid grasslands, which become a great ecological problem in arid and semiarid region. It is one of the most important parts of research in the global change of terrestrial ecosystem. Shrub encroachment was resulted from the interactions of many factors including over grazing, fire, climate change, elevated atmospheric CO 2, changes about biotic and abiotic environment factors. Shrub encroachment could occurred a suddenly vegetation shift from a stable stage with grasses dominant to a stable stage with shrub dominant, with a great change in the composition and structure of plant community. The whole landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity increased in the processes of shrub encroachment. The light, heat, water and nutrients in ecosystem were redistributed with the establishment and development of shrub seedlings. Shrub patches gradually formed “fertile islands” with water and nutrients enrichment. The current studies about shrub encroachment were mainly concentrated on fixed-point research and factor controlled experiments with distinct locality and restrictions. We should pay more attention on the relationship of climate change and shrub encroachment, feedback of grassland ecosystem for shrub encroachment and research about strategies and countermeasures relative to shrub encroachment, model simulation might be one of important ways to study the occurrence and development of shrub encroachment even to predict the succession of ecosystem.
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    Research progress on the physiological response of plants to low temperature and the amelioration effcectiveness of exogenous ABA
    Hong-tao XIANG, Dian-feng ZHENG, Ning HE, Wan LI, Man-li WANG, Shi-ya WANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2021, 30 (1): 208-219.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020091
    Abstract741)   HTML48)    PDF (1223KB)(688)       Save

    Global climate change is producing abnormal, extreme weather and agricultural meteorological disasters linked to climate change now occur frequently. Sudden low temperature stress has become one of the most common abiotic stresses in agricultural production, and low temperature stress more generally has become one of the most common abiotic stresses in agricultural production in recent years. Low temperature stress interferes with plant growth and development, and can directly or indirectly affect physiological functions, cell membrane components and structure of the plant, thus reducing yield and quality, and seriously restricting agricultural production. Application of exogenous ABA at appropriate rates can alleviate the effects of low temperature stress on physicochemical processes. Here we systematically expound the effects of low temperature stress on the physicochemical processes of plants and clarify the mechanisms of plant responses to low temperature stress, including aspects of photosynthetic physiology, stress physiology, cell membrane components and cell structure, hormone levels, and gene expression. Furthermore, the positive effects of exogenous ABA in alleviating low temperature stress are analyzed. This paper discusses the research status and development trends with respect to the use of plant growth regulators for alleviation of low temperature stress. This topic is of great significance for stable production and preservation of agriculture, and also provides a theoretical basis for future research on plant cold resistance.

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    Advances and perspectives in forage oat breeding
    Xue-ling YE, Zhen GAN, Yan WAN, Da-bing XIANG, Xiao-yong WU, Qi WU, Chang-ying LIU, Yu FAN, Liang ZOU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (2): 160-177.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022263
    Abstract623)   HTML54)    PDF (857KB)(699)       Save

    Oat (Avena sativa) is an annual crop belonging to the Poaceae family with resistance to salinity, drought, cold stress, and adaptability to a wide range of environmental conditions including lower soil fertility. Oats are widely grown in temperate regions north of 40° N latitude in Europe, North America, and Asia. Oats also have a high forage yield, high nutritional value, good palatability, high digestibility, and the crop is suitable for silage and hay production. Therefore, oat is a versatile grain crop useful for food and forage purposes. Oat cultivars can be classified as naked or hulled oats depending on whether the grains readily separate from the husk or lemma at threshing. Hulled oats retain their husk. Naked oats without husks are mostly grown in China and are commonly used for food, while hulled oats which retain their husks are mainly grown in other countries, and are often used for feeding livestock. With the rapid development of animal husbandry in China in recent years, the available forage oat varieties are currently in need of improvement. Our country has formulated and implemented a series of policies that include “grass-based livestock husbandry”, “grain to forage” and “planting grass in fields”, which have promoted the rapid development of the forage oat industry. Under the strong support and guidance of these national policies and industry need, the planting area of forage oats has continued to expand, and the demand for new varieties has become increasingly urgent, which also points to higher requirements for the breeding of forage oats. In this study, we reviewed: 1) Collection, sorting, identification, and evaluation of germplasm resources of forage oats at home and abroad; 2) Four development stages of conventional breeding; and 3) The application of molecular technology in scientific research and breeding of oats. Based the above review, the current breeding objectives of forage oats are clarified, and the key points, difficulties, and immediate issues of forage oat breeding are discussed and analyzed, thus providing an important resource to underpin further developments in forage oat breeding.

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    Progress of research on hormone regulation of branching or tillering in plants
    Fen-qi CHEN, Jin-qing ZHANG, Hui-ling MA
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (2): 212-225.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023118
    Abstract259)   HTML19)    PDF (1243KB)(527)       Save

    Branching (or tillering in grasses and related taxa) is an important trait of plant architecture and the result of axillary bud initiation and growth, which plays a crucial role in determining the seed yield of crops and forage yield. Multiple hormones and their interactions play key regulatory roles in the occurrence, growth and development of plant branching or tillering. In addition, environmental factors also regulate branching or tillering by changing the hormone contents and their balances within the plant. This study reviews multiple aspects of the mechanisms by which plant branching or tillering is regulated various hormones, including auxin, cytokinin, strigolactones, brassinosteroids, abscisic acid and gibberellins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and complex regulatory networks formed by the interaction of different hormone signals. The aim is to establish a foundation for using hormone regulation mechanisms to cultivate new high-yielding crop plant growth forms with ideal plant architecture. The current issues with hormone regulation mechanisms controlling plant branching or tillering are also analyzed, and future research directions for hormone regulation mechanisms controlling plant branching or tillering are discussed, with the aim of providing a theoretical basis for using hormones to cultivate good varieties.

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    Impacts of desertification and artificial revegetation on soil bacterial communities in alpine grassland
    Ya-ni WANG, Yi-gang HU, Zeng-ru WANG, Yi-kang LI, Zhen-hua ZHANG, Hua-kun ZHOU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (5): 26-39.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021120
    Abstract295)   HTML30)    PDF (4934KB)(823)       Save

    Characteristics of the soil microbial communities indicate the health of grasslands and quality of the environment. To elucidate the effects of desertification and artificial revegetation on the respective soil bacterial communities, four alpine grassland types including natural grassland (NG), desertified grassland (DG), grass-based artificial grassland (AG) and shrub-based artificial grassland (AS) in a small watershed of Guinan County, Qinghai Province were selected and qPCR and Illumina MiSeq high-throughput amplicon sequencing technologies were used to study the variation between the communities in bacterial biomass, diversity and structure. We also analyzed the key factors shaping soil bacterial community structure and their contributions based on variations in vegetation and soil properties. It was found that grassland desertification significantly reduced bacterial community biomass and α diversity (P<0.05), but that bacterial community biomass could be almost restored to the level of undegraded grassland after 22 years of artificial revegetation. Desertification significantly increased the relative abundance of Gemmatimonadota, while abundance of Proteobacteria and Planctomycetota significantly decreased (P<0.05). Artificial revegetation promoted the succession of dominant bacteria towards the community structure found in NG, and after 22 years of artificial revegetation, most of the bacterial relative abundances paralleled those of the undegraded status. Dissimilarity in bacterial community structure was noted between NG and DG, AG and AS, community structure in AG and AS were very similar. Soil bacterial community structure significantly positively correlated with the majority of vegetation and soil physiochemical properties (P<0.05). However, compared to soil physical (6.3%) and chemical (1.9%) properties, vegetation properties explained more variation (10.0%) in bacterial community structure. In total, the measured vegetation and soil indices explained 72.0% of variation in soil bacterial community structure, implying that vegetation and soil determine the shifts of soil bacterial community structure. Accordingly, it is essential and meaningful to strengthen vegetation and soil protection, and implement artificial revegetation in desertified grassland for protection and restoration of soil bacterial communities in Tibetan alpine grassland. However, the choice between shrub and grass planting during revegetation made little difference to the superficial soil bacterial community structure in artificial revegetation.

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    Nitrogen fertilizer threshold and uncertainty analysis of typical grassland on the northern slopes of Tianshan Mountains
    Qi-fei HAN, Long YIN, Chao-fan LI, Run-gang ZHANG, Wen-biao WANG, Zheng-nan CUI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (1): 19-32.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023097
    Abstract115)   HTML14)    PDF (3820KB)(490)       Save

    In the context of climate change and increasing human activities, a series of ecological problems have emerged in arid and semi-arid regions as one of the important and very vulnerable components of the terrestrial ecosystem. Exploring the impact of climate change and human activities on the net primary productivity (NPP) is of great significance for the rational use of natural resources and the sustainable development of agriculture and animal husbandry. Nitrogen fertilization is a way to promote increased NPP and appropriate fertilization can improve the NPP of grassland. To further explore the potential use of N fertilization, this study investigated four grassland types, alpine meadow (AM), mid-mountain forest meadow (MMFM), low mountain dry grassland (LMDG) and plain desert grassland (PDG), distributed along the altitude gradient on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains, and employed a denitrification-decomposition model to analyze the NPP responses of the typical grassland ecosystem in this region to the application of different nitrogen fertilizers, and reveal the nitrogen fertilizer threshold and the optimal fertilization strategy. It was found that: 1) Appropriate nitrogen addition led to an increase in NPP of all types of grassland ecosystems, but there was a threshold value for the response of grassland NPP to fertilizer application, and different types of grassland NPP had different threshold values. There was no unified optimal fertilization method applicable to the four types of grassland. LMDG grassland ecosystem is the most sensitive to nitrogen application. 2) The maximum NPP in PDG grassland was achieved by applying 100 kg·ha-1 nitrate twice a year, and the maximum NPP was 68.72 g C·m-2·yr-1. The maximum NPP fertilization strategy in LMDG grassland is 260 kg·ha-1 of urea applied twice a year, and the maximum NPP value is 263.28 g C·m-2·yr-1. The maximum NPP of MMFM was achieved by applying 80 kg·ha-1 of urea once a year, and the maximum NPP is 171.22 g C·m-2·yr-1. In AM grassland, anhydrous ammonia reached the maximum value of NPP (114.62 g C·m-2·yr-1) with the minimum amount of fertilizer (60 kg·ha-1) and was the best nitrogen fertilizer in this grassland type. 3) The result of Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows that PDG and LMDG is more sensitive to fertilization time, and the effect of fluctuation in fertilizer application rate variation on LMDG and MMFM is more obvious.

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    The role of MAPK in plant response to abiotic stress
    Xin-miao ZHANG, Guo-qiang WU, Ming WEI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (1): 182-197.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023090
    Abstract465)   HTML35)    PDF (1316KB)(442)       Save

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a highly conserved serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase, occurring widely in eukaryotic intermediate reaction pathways. Plant MAPK has 11 relatively conserved sub-domains, which are all essential elements for Ser/Thr protein kinase to play its catalytic role, and its expression is regulated by reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and hormones. MAPK phosphorylates a variety of substrates including transcription factors, protein kinases and cytoskeleton related proteins, and plays an important role in regulating plant response to abiotic stresses (salt, drought, extreme temperature, and heavy metals). In this review, we summarize the results of research on the discovery of plant MAPK family members, their structure and classification, regulatory mechanisms, and their roles in response to various abiotic stresses. We also propose directions for future research. The information in this review provides a theoretical basis and identifies genetic resources for the genetic improvement of crops to produce new, stress-resistant varieties.

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    Variations in vegetation cover and its relationship with climate change and human activities in Mongolia during the period 1982-2015
    Jia-meng DU, Gang BAO, Si-qin TONG, Xiao-jun HUANG, Wendurina, Meili, Yu-hai BAO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2021, 30 (2): 1-13.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020311
    Abstract913)   HTML76)    PDF (4783KB)(1055)       Save

    Dynamics of vegetation change on different spatial and temporal scales in Mongolia were analysed for the period from 1982 to 2015, based on GIMMS NDVI3g data (global inventory monitoring and modeling system normalized difference vegetation index-3rd generation), climate data, and data on vegetation type from 1982 to 2015. Spatial patterns, trends of change in those patterns, and the main reasons for differences in vegetation type were examined using trend analysis, partial correlation analysis and residual analysis. The average NDVI in Mongolia in the growing season increased gradually from the south to the north across Mongolia over the 34-year period, showed significant latitudinal differences, and decreased as the altitude increased. In the growing season, the NDVI displayed characteristic features in particular time periods, notably a significant increase between 1982 and 1994 and between 2007 and 2015, and a significant decrease between 1994 and 2007. Across the whole of Mongolia, linear regression model indicated an increasing trend in the values of the NDVI during the growing season at the rate of 0.0005 NDVI per year, and changes in the index were closely related to increasing precipitation, with a partial correlation coefficient of 0.74. In the case of spatial distribution, areas with significant increase in vegetation were distributed mainly in the Great Lakes Region in the west, the Hangayn Mountains, the Gobi Altai Mountains, and the northern forest areas. The responses of vegetation to climatic factors varied with the season and the region. On the whole, the NDVI increased in three seasons, and the fluctuation in the NDVI in summer was consistent with that in the growth season, and the fluctuation in the NDVI in summer was consistent with that in the growth season, which was controlled mainly by precipitation, because summer contributes the most to annual productivity. The effect of temperature on the NDVI was marked in spring and autumn. Residual analysis showed that human activities has a major impact on changes in the NDVI, especially in areas with high population density (western alpine areas and central grassland areas of Mongolia), the decline in the NDVI is obviously caused by human activities.

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    Comparison of production performance and forage quality of ten introduced oat varieties in Hulunbuir, China
    Wei ZHANG, Qing-ping ZHOU, You-jun CHEN, Jing PAN, Xiao-ming JIN, Wan-bin SUN, Zhi-feng JIA
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2021, 30 (12): 129-142.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021049
    Abstract543)   HTML12)    PDF (3466KB)(649)       Save

    In order to identify oat varieties best suited for cultivation in the Hulunbuir region, 10 oat varieties (Qingyan No.1, Qinghai No. 444, Jiayan No. 2, Qingyin No. 1, Linna, Qinghai sweet oat, Qingyin No. 2, Monica, Qingyou No. 3, and Fine horse) were trialed in the field and their forage and grain yields and nutritional composition were measured. Relative forage value and roughage grading index scores were used to evaluate and rank the forage quality and grey correlation analysis was used to derive a multivariate ranking of production performance. It was found that the time to maturity of the ten oat varieties ranged from 73 to 88 days. All matured early in Hulunbuir. Among the varieties, measured at the flowering stage, Qinghai No.444 was the tallest (113 cm, P<0.05), had the highest yield of fresh herbage (36620 kg·ha-1P<0.05), and had the highest hay yield (9990 kg·ha-1P<0.05). The growth time to maturity, plant height, leaf length, leaf width, plant diameter, and spike length was all significantly positively correlated with forage yield (P<0.01), while the leaf∶stem ratio and dry∶fresh weight ratio were extremely negatively correlated with forage yield (P<0.01). Qingyin No.1 had the highest grain yield (5439 kg·ha-1); this was not significantly different from Jiayan No. 2 (P>0.05), but was significantly higher than other varieties (P<0.05). Growth duration, plant height, stem diameter, spike length, round layers and thousand grain weight were all significantly positively correlated with grain yield (P<0.01), while spikelet number was negatively correlated with grain yield (P<0.01). With respect to forage quality, Qingyin No.1 had the highest ether extract content at the milk stage (P<0.05) and the highest crude protein and ash contents at the heading stage (P<0.05), while Qingyin No. 2 had the highest dry matter content at the heading stage (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis of production performance, nutritive value and forage value concluded that Qingyin No.1, Jiayan No.2 and Qinghai No.444 had superior production performance and higher nutritional quality and forage value, and can therefore be recommended for planting in the Hulunbuir region.

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    Research progress on vigor estimation for forage seeds
    Qi-bo TAO, Xi-hu QIE, Qian ZHANG, Yu-xuan GAO, Ya-qi ZHANG, Rui-zhen ZHANG, Xiao-fei CHEN, Tian-xiu NIU, Xiao-tong SUN, Yu-ting NIE, Ya-ru LIU, Jia-qi HU, Shang-zhi ZHONG, Juan SUN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 200-225.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023007
    Abstract202)   HTML11)    PDF (827KB)(400)       Save

    High-quality forage seeds are fundamental materials for grass-husbandry industry development and ecological restoration in China. Seed vigor is an important aspect of evaluate seed quality. The efficient vigor estimation of forage seeds is of great importance for selection of high-quality seed lots for cultivated grassland establishment and improvement of natural grassland, and is therefore critical to ensuring food and ecological security. Numerous studies on diverse forage seed vigor estimation methods and their ability to predict field performance have been carried out and published. In this study, the concepts and methodologies for forage seed vigor estimation are summarized, with particular emphasis on the estimation principles and their application in forage seed vigor estimation of some of the more commonly used methods. Coverage of this review includes forage seed physical properties, germination and seedling growth characteristics, stress testing, physiological and biochemical indicators, and advanced technologies. Future prospects in this field are also identified and discussed, to provide necessary direction for the improvement of future research.

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    The grassland agriculture of Mongolia and its capacity to inform development in China
    Zhi-peng HUANG, Yi HUANG, Quan-jun YANG, Chao XIA, Yan ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (6): 1-15.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022265
    Abstract367)   HTML54)    PDF (1778KB)(460)       Save

    Mongolia borders on northern China, has abundant grassland resources and grassland-based livestock husbandry is the pillar industry there. Based on the literature and statistical data, this study surveys the development status of grassland agriculture in Mongolia from three aspects: reform of the pastoral institutional system, the grassland resources, and the development of a grazing-based livestock industry. Our study also analyzes the differences between Mongolia and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Grassland agriculture in Mongolia has undergone three stages of institutional reforms, the post-transformation period began at 1990 and is ongoing till now. The grassland itself is collectively owned and the livestock is privately owned. Under the influences of climate change, over exploitation of grassland, expansion of cultivated land and urban areas, and mining pollution, the grassland area has decreased and the ecological status of the grassland is gradually deteriorating. The proportions for each of Mongolia’s five categories of livestock remain stable but with regional variability and differences. The growth in total livestock numbers is much higher in Mongolia than in Inner Mongolia, China. In recent years, the grazing-based livestock husbandry has faced a problem of an aging population. As a result, the proportion of animal husbandry output value within the national economy has gradually declined and the industrial chain urgently needs to be improved. Finally, this study proposes implications for Mongolia and offers information relevant to the development of grassland agriculture in China.

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    Research progress in water uptake models by plant roots
    WANG Yu-Yang, CHEN Ya-Peng
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2017, 26 (3): 214-225.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2016146
    Abstract729)   HTML24)    PDF (634KB)(1313)       Save
    The uptake of water by roots is the beginning of water transport within a plant, with such uptake directly controlling the amount of water available for transporting and, as a result, strongly affecting the life of the plant. Research on this uptake is thus not only a key to understanding the process of water transfer in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, but also an important topic for interdisciplinary research in such areas as hydrology, climate, soil, agriculture and ecology. Models for root uptake of water provide a numerical tool for quantitatively understanding this plant process. The establishment of a suitable model will provide not only a basic tool for estimating the amount of water absorbed but will also help to discover the water sources and requirements of plants. It can thus assist the development of effective agricultural water management programs, with far-reaching significance for restoring vegetation in extremely arid regions. In this paper, we review the development of models for root uptake of water, sum up the mechanisms identified and classify the models into different types at macroscopic and microscopic scales. We analyze the macroscopic models in detail, including Ohm’s law model, Feddes model, Transpiration segment model, Hybrid model, Compensatory root uptake water model and the Matric flux potential model, which are widely used in practical experiments. We illustrate the application range and discuss the limitations of existing models. We conclude with three suggestions for future research: 1) the establishment of dynamic models for root uptake of water, 2) the combination of microscopic and macroscopic models, and 3) the development of models for trees and herbages.
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    A taxonomic inventory of national key protected wild plants in Qinghai Province, based on the national checklist of key protected wild plants (2021)
    Jin-yuan CHEN, Wei-bo DU, Xu SU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (9): 1-12.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021502
    Abstract997)   HTML35)    PDF (1244KB)(604)       Save

    Following the new national checklist of key protected wild plants, we made a taxonomic inventory of key nationally protected wild plants in the Qinghai Province. Data was drawn from consulting relevant literature and inspection of herbarium specimens. Our aim was to better understand their plant types, family and genus distribution, endemism, conservation status, and geographical distribution. It was found that: 1) Compared with species checklists in 1999, 44 key nationally protected wild species are newly added into the species list for Qinghai Province. 2) In Qinghai Province there are 53 species and one variety, 30 genera, 22 families and three categories of key nationally protected wild plants listed. Among them, Nostoc flagelliforme is a level-one key protected wild plant, and 52 species and one variety are level-two key protected wild plants. 3) The family with the largest number of plants listed is the Orchidaceae with 10 species, and the most commonly listed genus is Cypripedium containing eight species. 4) There is one genus endemic to China, there are three genera endemic to China and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), nine species endemic to China, nine species endemic to the QTP, 13 species endemic to China and the QTP and one species, Meconopsis barbiseta, endemic to Qinghai Province. 5) With respect to conservation status, there are 18 species listed as vulnerable (VU) level, and 12 species listed as endangered (EN) among the 54 key nationally protected wild species from Qinghai Province, which accounted for 55.55% of the total species. 6) Most of the key nationally protected wild species are distributed mainly in the alpine grassland and forest vegetation of Yushu and Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Haidong city, which is consistent with the plant diversity distribution pattern in Qinghai Province. There are 53 species and one variety of key nationally protected wild plants in Qinghai Province, most of which are level-two key protected wild plants. Among these, 32 species are endemic species, accounting for 59.25% of the total, and 30 species are among the threatened species. Most of the key nationally protected wild plants are distributed in the southeast of Qinghai Province.

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    Ecological value and its spatiotemporal dynamic patterns of grassland in China
    Jia-hui LI, Lin HUANG, Jiang-wen FAN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (12): 1-13.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023058
    Abstract256)   HTML37)    PDF (5832KB)(386)       Save

    As China’s largest terrestrial ecosystem and one of the important natural resources, grasslands provide a series of ecosystem services which contribute to human well-being. However, there are still wide expanses of grassland suffering from various degrees of degradation, and requiring urgent conservation and restoration action to improve their quality, function and stability. Accounting of grassland ecological value provides an effective means to monitor the changes in and assess the combined importance of multiple grassland ecosystem functions. This study analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution of grassland ecological value in China from 2000 to 2020. It then assessed the spatiotemporal dynamics of the value of key ecological services of grasslands, including windbreak and sand fixation, water conservation, forage supply and carbon sequestration. Next, adaptation strategies for optimizing and enhancing the grassland ecological value in China were proposed. It was found that in 2020, the ecological value of China’s grassland was 2.47×104 billion CNY, and the value was 7.6 million CNY·km-2, among which the value per unit area of windbreak and sand fixation and species richness maintenance were relatively high, accounting for 27.3% and 25.8% of the total, respectively. In the past 20 years, more than 90% of China’s grassland area has shown an increasing trend in ecological value. This applies especially to grassland located on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the northern Loess Plateau, and the eastern and central parts of Inner Mongolia indicate a rapid growth. Moreover, the sum of grassland ecological values of Mongolia, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan and Xinjiang accounted for about 67.4% of China’s total ecological value. In the past 20 years, Shaanxi, Beijing, Ningxia, Tianjin, and Shanxi showed a relatively high growth rate in grassland ecological value (>65%). Finally, China’s grasslands were divided into three categories and twelve subcategories, based on grassland protection and restoration strategies focusing on different key ecological services. Our study offers significant insights for assigning various protection and restoration priorities to achieve sustainable growth in grassland ecological value.

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    Progress in research and practice of restoration of degraded grassland around the world
    Li GAO, Yong DING
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (10): 189-205.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022077
    Abstract632)   HTML58)    PDF (683KB)(520)       Save

    Grassland is one of the most important terrestrial ecosystems on earth, and brings humankind a series of ecosystem services, including food production, climate regulation, air purification, water conservation, wind prevention and sand fixation. Nearly half of the grasslands in the world are affected by climate change and human factors, and thus display different degrees of degradation. This degradation has become one of the world’s ecological and environmental problems. Much research on restoration of degraded grasslands has been carried out around the world with findings often leading to change in practice, and great progress has been made. However, at the beginning of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021-2030), a new generation of restoration research and practice projects is needed to cope with global environmental challenges. This paper summarizes the research and practice of degraded grassland restoration around the world, in the hope of learning from the existing grassland restoration work. On this basis, it is anticipated that we can map out the main direction of future research on degraded grassland restoration, and formulate reasonable restoration plans for degraded grassland, so as to provide reference information for new grassland restoration research and practice in the context of global change.

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    Desert grassland dynamics in the last 20 years and its response to climate change in Xinjiang
    Chen CHEN, Chang-qing JING, Wen-yuan XING, Xiao-jin DENG, Hao-yu FU, Wen-zhang GUO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2021, 30 (3): 1-14.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020143
    Abstract696)   HTML48)    PDF (4374KB)(645)       Save

    Desert grassland is a key type of land ecosystem in arid and semi-arid areas. Desert grassland has an important ecological role and is sensitive to human activities and global change. In this paper, we studied the dynamic changes in desert grassland in Xinjiang and the responses to different driving factors on different time scales and spatial scales for the period 1999-2018. We first extracted the coverage of desert grassland in Xinjiang and determined the desert grassland threshold values for normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Then, we used a unitary linear regression model, correlation analysis and other methods to combine NDVI, net primary productivity (NPP), meteorological factors and other data to study the changes in area of desert grassland and their driving mechanisms. The results showed that: 1) There were differences in the distribution of desert grasslands in the North and South of Xinjiang during the study period. Over all the area of desert grassland decreased significantly, while the average NDVI was relatively stable, and the NPP showed an upward trend. 2) Meteorological factors over the study period showed different trends at different times of the year. In July and August there were significant differences between North and South Xinjiang. Temperature and precipitation in most regions of Xinjiang increased between 1999 and 2018. 3) In terms of interannual changes, precipitation, high evaporation events, and average wind speed are the important factors affecting NDVI of desert grasslands in Xinjiang. The effect of water conditions on NDVI in the growing season is more obvious. There is a significant negative correlation between annual evaporation and desert grassland NPP, and average wind speed and precipitation have a correlation with desert grassland NPP. 4) In terms of spatial correlation, the area where temperature and precipitation are positively correlated with the NDVI and NPP of desert grassland is larger than that dominated by other factors, and the area where the precipitation effect dominates is larger than that driven by temperature. It was concluded that the dynamic changes of desert grassland in Xinjiang were the result of the combined effects of multiple meteorological factors. Temperature and precipitation were the main factors of influence, and of these the impact of precipitation was more obvious. Water status is the decisive factor driving dynamic vegetation change in desert grassland.

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    Research progress on remote sensing discrimination techniques for grassland botanical species
    Meng-ge HUANG, Xin-hong WANG, Ling-ling MA, Xue-hua YE, Xiao-hua ZHU, Wei-ping KONG, Ning WANG, Qi WANG, Guang-zhou OUYANG, Qing-chuan ZHENG, Xiao-xin HOU, Ling-li TANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (6): 167-185.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022278
    Abstract294)   HTML21)    PDF (1661KB)(401)       Save

    Grassland is an important resource bank for regional economic development and a crucial ecological reservoir for the security of China’s land-based ecological environment. Remote sensing technology is rapid, efficient, and low-cost, and therefore provides the mainstream technical means for large-scale grassland monitoring. The use of remote sensing technology to discriminate grassland species is an important way to monitor the population dynamics and botanical community succession in grassland. Such information is conducive to the timely and accurate detection of changes in the grassland ecological environment and provides an important reference for the scientific management of grassland ecosystems and the construction of an ecologically aware civilization. This study focuses on the problem of remote sensing discrimination of grassland species, clarifies the technical process of grassland species discrimination and introduces the latest research progress. Technical difficulties are covered from three perspectives: The characteristics of the main remote sensing data sources for grassland species discrimination and their acquisition techniques, important grassland species discrimination features and their mining techniques and the current commonly used grassland species discrimination methods and models. This study concludes that hyperspectral and LiDAR remote sensing and their fusion technologies have application prospects in the remote sensing discrimination of grassland species, and that the deep mining of multidimensional features and the effective combination of complementary features can improve the accuracy of grassland species discrimination. This study identifies the main problems of the current remote sensing discrimination technology for grassland species, and opens the prospect of the future precise discrimination of grassland species through remote sensing technology and thereby provides a theoretical reference for a thorough understanding of the field of remote sensing identification of grassland species and in-depth research on grassland species discrimination.

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    Response of soil organic phosphorus mineralization to alpine meadow degradation and temperature
    Hong-yu QIAN, Yu-lin PU, Shan-xin LANG, Yi-ran LI, Nan-ding ZHOU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 15-27.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022469
    Abstract233)   HTML38)    PDF (4008KB)(362)       Save

    Clarification of the mineralization characteristics of organic phosphorus in degraded grassland soils at different temperatures can provide basic data and a theoretical framework for the scientific management of soil phosphorus nutrients during the ecological recovery of degraded grassland. In this research, an aerobic culture method at constant temperature and humidity was used to investigate the mineralization characteristics and temperature responses of organic phosphorus in non-degraded (ND) meadow, and lightly degraded (LD), moderately degraded (MD) and heavily degraded (HD) soils on the Zoige Plateau. It was found that the mineralization rate of organic phosphorus showed no obvious change in the early stage (0-30 d), increased rapidly in the middle stage (30-60 d), and gradually stabilized in the late stage (60-120 d) when the four types of meadow soils were cultured at 5-15 ℃. Meadow degradation had no significant effect on soil organic phosphorus mineralization at low temperature (5-10 ℃). However, soil organic phosphorus mineralization was significantly reduced in MD and HD soils at high temperature (≥15 ℃). Compared with ND, the net mineralization rate of organic phosphorus in MD and HD soils decreased by 52.8% and 56.8%, respectively, at 15 ℃, and the constant B0 of soil organic phosphorus mineralization decreased by 29.5% and 40.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the temperature sensitivity of soil organic phosphorus mineralization decreased gradually with increased severity of meadow degradation. For example, the temperature sensitivity coefficient y" of organic phosphorus mineralization in ND soil was significantly higher than that in MD and HD soils by 221.1% and 306.7%, respectively. In summary, the degradation of alpine meadow reduced the mineralization and temperature sensitivity of soil organic phosphorus, which would be predicted to result in further reduction of soil phosphorus availability, and exacerbate any problem of phosphorus limitation in degraded grassland ecosystems arising from ongoing global warming.

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    Advances in studies of calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) in plants
    WU Zhi-gang, WU Shu-jia, WANG Ying-chun, ZHENG Lin-lin
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2018, 27 (1): 204-214.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2017211
    Abstract2476)   HTML72)    PDF (1226KB)(1317)       Save
    Ca 2+ is an important secondary messenger in signal transduction in plant cells. When plants are exposed to fluctuating environmental conditions Ca 2+ signals are perceived and decoded by Ca 2+ sensors (CaMs, CaMLs, CBLs and CDPKs) to elicit the expression level of related genes. Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) is a Ca 2+ sensor playing a pivotal role in plant development, pollen tube elongation and responses to abiotic and biotic stimuli. It has the unique ability to directly transmit cytolic Ca 2+ signals to downstream phosphorylation events in diverse substrates which can mediate interaction with 14-3-3 proteins to modulate protein functions. Most CDPKs have significant subcellular distribution, allowing them to “feel” local Ca 2+ concentration and to act specifically with their target cells. 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved in eukaryotic cells, which in most cases need to bind to different targets and be phosphorylated to modulate their activity. Through protein-protein interactions, 14-3-3 proteins are involved in many significant physiological processes in plants. Recent studies have revealed that the role of CDPK in phosphorylating sites in mediating 14-3-3 protein binding to form CDPK/14-3-3 complex, and have also highlighted the role of the CDPK/14-3-3 complex in regulating primary metabolism, plant hormone synthesis and flowering. In this paper, CDPK structure, subcellular localization, target protein, biological functions, especially the cross regulation between CDPK and 14-3-3 and their synergistic effect in plant signaling pathway will be discussed in depth. Our study aims are to provide a reference and indicate new directions for future CDPK research.
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    Nitrogen cycling in grassland ecosystems in response to climate change and human activities
    YAN Zhong-qing,QI Yu-chun,DONG Yun-she,PENG Qin,SUN Liang-jie,JIA Jun-qiang,CAO Cong-cong,GUO Shu-fang,HE Yun-long
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2014, 23 (6): 279-292.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20140634
    Abstract4175)   HTML44)    PDF (587KB)(2088)       Save
    As an important component of proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes and chlorophyll nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for ecosystem function. Many large research programs undertaken by the International Geosphere and Biosphere Program (IGBP) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have included the N cycle as part of their core research. Globally, grassland ecosystems play an extremely important role in maintaining global and regional ecological balance. To date, few studies on the response of the N cycle to global changes have been conducted. There is some urgency to determine the effect of elevated atmospheric CO 2 and temperature, precipitation change, nitrogen deposition and human activities (grazing, cultivation, fire, etc.) on the N cycle in grasslands. This paper reviews research progresses in China and globally on the effects of global change and human activities on the key N cycle processes in grassland ecosystems. Additionally, issues requiring research emphasis are identified.
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    Cited: Baidu(21)
    Determination of the nutrient digestibility of herbage consumed by grazing animals
    You-shun JIN, Fu-jiang HOU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (5): 200-212.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021089
    Abstract390)   HTML19)    PDF (1630KB)(542)       Save

    Nutrient digestibility of herbage consumed by grazing livestock is one of the key indicators for grassland management, and is a function of both the biomass and nutritional quality of forage, and the health and production status of livestock. Nutrient digestibility of forage consumed by grazing livestock can be determined by direct or indirect methods. The direct methods include, among others, the total feces collection method, the indigestible marker method and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The indirect methods include in vivo or in vitro fermentation digestibility determinations, the forage quality prediction method and the climate prediction method. The total fecal collection method is a comparatively accurate method, provided that the feed dry matter intake and feces dry weight are accurately determined. However, it is time-consuming and laborious, and has a great impact on the grazing behavior. Moreover, it is difficult to reflect the spatial heterogeneity of forage supply in the pasture. The indigestible marker method estimates the nutrient digestibility according to the proportion of indigestible matter recovered and causes little disturbance to the grazing behavior of livestock. However, it is not easy to analyze for the indigestible marker, and the method is not suitable for wild grazing animals. The NIRS method has high efficiency, low labor intensity, low cost, and does not have any effects on livestock, so it can estimate the nutrient digestibility of forage consumed by grazing livestock on a large scale. However, NIRS requires a lot of directly measured calibration data to improve the prediction accuracy. The climate estimation method is fast, and therefore time-saving but is also less accurate. Climate estimation is therefore suitable for large spatial and temporal scales. The nutrient digestibility of forage consumed by grazing livestock is closely related to biological factors, environmental factors and social factors such as livestock class, grassland type, grazing methods employed, temperature and precipitation. Combined with remote sensing, unmanned aerial vehicle methods and artificial intelligence, the nutrient digestibility of forage consumed by grazing livestock can be accurately and quickly measured, providing support for grassland ecological restoration and livestock health and management.

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    Chinese grassland insurance development model, practical difficulties and system construction
    Tao QIN, Cai-xia ZHU, Jian-he WANG, Jin ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 226-246.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022471
    Abstract196)   HTML8)    PDF (5348KB)(340)       Save

    Grassland is an important ecological security barrier, animal husbandry base and carbon reservoir carrier in China, and building a risk guarantee system with grassland insurance as the core is of great value for protecting the grassland ecological environment, promoting rural revitalization in pastoral areas and achieving the ‘dual carbon’ goal of peak carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and carbon neutrality before 2060,and it plays a key role in global climate governance. Through literature review and qualitative comparative analysis, it is found that the United States, Canada and France, among others, have established different forms of grassland product insurance systems, with index insurance as the core mechanism to transfer forage risks. However, Chinese grassland insurance is currently in the exploration stages. A current pilot phase, has not yet established a product system that is aligned with Chinese national conditions. During the pilot work, many constraints have emerged. There are some difficulties in collecting premiums, the promotion of the system lacks uniformity, the product supply power is insufficient, there is no theoretical basis for determination of premium rates, and the cost of determining loss claims is too high. Therefore, China needs to improve the grassland insurance policy system and product system as soon as possible, and build a linkage mechanism for central and local premium subsidies. Improvement of the multi-level disaster risk protection system and innovation introduction should include: The development model of a “comprehensive insurance+index insurance”; Development of diversified insurance products to meet the diversified risk management needs of insured entities; Promotion of the process of grassland risk zoning and rate determination, and establishing a differentiated dynamic pricing mechanism; Formulation of unified technical standards for survey and loss assessment; Improvement of the underwriting claim mechanism; Improvement of the level of grassland insurance technology and enhancement of the innovation level; And increase in the service capabilities of insurance products.

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    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (6): 1-10.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20220601
    Abstract655)   HTML66)    PDF (598KB)(640)       Save
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    Yield and nutrient concentration in common green manure crops and assessment of potential for nitrogen replacement in different regions of China
    YANG Ye-hua, ZHANG Song, WANG Shuai, LIU Zheng-lan, FANG Lin-fa, ZHANG Xue-liang, LIU Rui, ZHANG Jian-wei, ZHANG Yu-ting, SHI Xiao-jun
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2020, 29 (6): 39-55.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2019397
    Abstract1034)   HTML45)    PDF (3430KB)(688)       Save
    Green manure is considered a clean source of organic fertilizer. It plays an important role in enhancing soil fertility and the substitution of chemical fertilizer. Quantifying green manure yield and nutrient concentration at the regional level can provide a theoretical basis and supporting data for green manure application and fertilizer replacement. This study, by searching the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database and related books, collected 3431 data, including information on 17 different common green manure crops across China. The green manure yield and nutrient concentration data from across China were systematically analyzed and compared, and the nitrogen fertilizer replacement effect was evaluated for different regions of China. It was found that the average yield of fresh green manure in China was 38.0 t·ha -1 (moisture content was 81.0% on average), but a wide range (0.7-186.7 t·ha -1) was noted. The average yields of ryegrass, erect milkvetch, Stylosanthes, and red clover were higher than 43 t·ha -1, and significantly higher than other green manure species. The average nitrogen concentration of 17 kinds of common green manures was 28.0 g·kg -1 (in the hay). The nitrogen concentration of common vetch, vetch, alfalfa, burclover, and white clover were all above 30.0 g·kg -1, and this was significantly higher than other green manure types. The average phosphorus concentration of different common green manure crops was 7.0 g·kg -1, and vetch and February orchid contained greater phosphorus concentration (above 8.0 g·kg -1) than other green manures. The average potassium concentration of different common green manure crops was 25.3 g·kg -1, and the February orchid and milk vetch were highest with a potassium concentration of more than 32.0 g·kg -1. The average accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of green manure crops was 214.4 kg N·ha -1, 48.4 kg P 2O 5·ha -1 and 165.1 kg K 2O·ha -1. There were significant differences in the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in different common green manures, among which the accumulation of nutrients was the highest in erect milkvetch, ryegrass, red clover, alfalfa, and Stylosanthes, above 250.0 kg N·ha -1, 50.0 kg P 2O 5·ha -1 and 191.7 kg K 2O·ha -1, respectively. Linking the nutrient accumulation data with regional climatic data, our further analysis found that: milk vetch is most suitable for planting in the southern hilly valley and interplanting zone; common vetch is suitable for planting in the northeast grain rotation area and the Yangtze River Basin; vetch is suitable for planting in the rice-cotton complex intercropping area of the Yangtze River Basin; alfalfa is most suitable for planting in the coastal multiple cropping area; white and red clover are most suitable for planting in the grain-grass intercropping area of the southwest mountainous hills and the northeast grain and grass rotation area; and ryegrass is most suitable for planting in rice-grass multiple cropping area. According to the nitrogen fixation potential assessment of the yield, nitrogen fixation amount and planting area of major leguminous green manure in different regions, the current planting area of green manure in China is about 4.49 million ha, equivalent to the production of 400-810 thousand tons of nitrogen fertilizer. If we estimate the potential area of green manure fertilizer in China at 46 million ha, this is equivalent to the production of 4.0-8.28 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer. Thus, leguminous green manure fertilizer has a high potential of fertilizer replacement. In formulating regional recommendations for green manure crop production, the green manure crop with strong adaptability and performance in each region should be identified and promoted.
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    Factors inducing plant apomixis and its potential application in Kentucky bluegrass breeding
    Jin-qing ZHANG, Kui-ju NIU, Yu-zhu LI, Hui-ling MA
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2021, 30 (4): 205-217.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020176
    Abstract423)   HTML15)    PDF (1166KB)(561)       Save

    The main factors affecting the development of apomictic embryogenesis in plants are summarized from five perspectives: genetic control, environmental impact, ploidy implications, hormone levels and mineral regulation, and the timing and location of the aposporous initiation cell. The purpose of this review is to develop a systematic understanding of the mechanism of apomixis in plants. In particular, research on apomixis in Poa pratensis is reviewed, factors limiting its occurrence are identified, theoretical advantages of its application are evaluated, and prospects for the use of apomixis in P. pratensis breeding and new germplasm creation are explored. This study provides a theoretical basis for the breeding and development of new varieties of P. pratensis.

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    Progress in research on the photosynthetic characteristics of green non-leaf organs in plants
    Hui WANG, Hao-qi TIAN, Pei-sheng MAO, Wen-hui LIU, Zhi-feng JIA, Lu-ping WEI, Qing-ping ZHOU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2021, 30 (10): 191-200.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021117
    Abstract411)   HTML24)    PDF (988KB)(571)       Save

    Photosynthesis is one of the most important biochemical reactions in plants, and is a vital process for producing food and oxygen and purifying water resources for humans and animals. Efforts to improve photosynthesis in plants have traditionally focused on increasing photosynthesis in the leaves to increase yield. However, green non-leaf organs may also contribute to improving the overall photosynthetic capacity of plants. Compared with leaves, some non-leaf organs show a lower transpiration rate, higher water use efficiency, and stronger osmotic regulation ability under stress conditions, indicative of better stress resistance. Thus, non-leaf organs may make a considerable contribution to yield. In this paper, we review recent studies on photosynthesis in green non-leaf organs, including those on the photosynthetic performance of reproductive organs and stems, the methods used to evaluate the relative contribution rate, the influences of abiotic stress, the identification of photosynthetic pathways, and CO2 fixation in non-leaf green organs. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the methods used to evaluate the contributions of these organs to photosynthesis in the whole plant, and outline future directions for research on the photosynthetic ability of non-leaf organs.

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    Effects of living mulch on soil physical and chemical properties in orchards: a review
    CAO Quan, SHEN Yu-Ying, WANG Zi-Kui, ZHANG Xiao-Ming, YANG Xuan
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2016, 25 (8): 180-188.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2015500
    Abstract1010)   HTML11)    PDF (428KB)(982)       Save

    A review has been undertaken to provide a basis for further research on and the application of living mulch practices in orchards. The effects of living mulch on soils’ physical and chemical properties make an important contribution to intensive, efficient, ecological and sustainable production. Forage cultivation can reduce soil bulk density by 4.7%-13.0% and improve the content of soil aggregates, thus enhancing hydraulic properties and water retention capacity. Forage cultivation can also help to raise rainfall interception and improve water use efficiency. Forage grass will compete for water with fruit trees in drought seasons, though adverse effects can be reduced by selecting appropriate grass varieties and strengthening field management. Forage grass cover can improve soil organic carbon (SOC) content. SOC can be improved by 19.6%-27.8% after planting forage grass for 6 years. The accumulation of SOC increases as the duration of forage planting increases. Living mulch can help to adjust soil temperature, which enhances microbial diversity and enzymatic activity. Living mulch will directly deplete soil nutrients, but the increase in the number of microorganisms can promote the decomposition of organic matter that increases nutrients. Moreover, legumes add nutrients through nitrogen fixation. Living mulch usually has a positive effect on soil nutrient accumulation.

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    Research progress on the seed-shattering mechanism of Poaceae plants
    Wen-gang XIE, Yi-yang WAN, Zong-yu ZHANG, Jun-chao ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2021, 30 (8): 186-198.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020579
    Abstract503)   HTML36)    PDF (3464KB)(541)       Save

    Seed shattering is an adaptive characteristic of wild plants for effective reproduction and population expansion, but it adversely affects seed production. The formation, development, and degradation of the abscission zone are the direct causes of seed shattering in plants. Plant hormones produce signals that promote or inhibit seed shattering. Cell wall hydrolases can cause the degradation of cells in the abscission zone. The occurrence of these processes is regulated by polygenes and the regulatory network is complex. Research on seed shattering has been carried out in rice, wheat, and other crops, but comparatively few studies have focused on forage grasses. In this paper, we review the latest advances in research on seed shattering in poaceous plants to provide a theoretical reference for in-depth exploration of seed-shattering mechanisms and species selection.

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    Temporal and spatial variations in natural grassland phenology in China over the last 30 years
    NI Lu, WU Jing, LI Chun-bin, QIN Ge-xia, LI Zheng, KONG Jie
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2020, 29 (1): 1-12.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2019003
    Abstract585)   HTML46)    PDF (3453KB)(939)       Save
    Long-term monitoring of grassland phenology in large-scale areas by remote sensing is an important area of ecological research and a core part of global change research. Based on the GIMMS 3g Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the 30-year (1986-2015) dataset, the Savitzky-Golay filtering method was employed to reconstruct the time series. A dynamic threshold method was used to extract phenological parameters of Chinese natural grassland (start of the growing season, SOS; end of the growing season, EOS; and length of the growing season, LOS). Then, 1998 was selected as the time demarcation point to analyze the temporal trends in evolution and spatial differentiation of grassland phenological characteristics in the two time periods. It was found that: 1) The national average annual SOS, EOS, and LOS were mainly concentrated around 100-140 days, 260-290 days, and 130-170 days, respectively; 2) Phenological trends have not changed significantly over the 30 years with a range of -0.3 to 0.3 d·yr -1; 3) Before 1998, the SOS of grassland was 0.37 d·yr -1 earlier and the EOS was 0.43 d·yr -1 later on average, and there was a big difference in the area of grassland. After 1998, grassland phenology began to change. The SOS of grassland showed the largest change with an average advance of 0.28 d·yr -1; 4) The phenological characteristics of alpine subalpine meadow, mountain grassland, flat grassland, and alpine subalpine flat grassland changed in a completely opposite direction after 1998. The time trends identified in this paper are consistent with observational data and the results of other studies.
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    Cloning and function analysis of MsPPR1 in alfalfa under drought stress
    Shao-peng WANG, Jia LIU, Jun HONG, Ji-zhen LIN, Yi ZHANG, Kun SHI, Zan WANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (7): 49-60.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022425
    Abstract204)   HTML15)    PDF (4774KB)(316)       Save

    Drought is an important environmental factor affecting plant growth, development and yield. pentatricopeptide repeats (PPR) family proteins play important roles in plant growth, development, stress response and other physiological processes. In this study, an MsPPR1 gene was cloned from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cv. Zhongmu No.1, and the drought resistance function of MsPPR1 was investigated through decreasing its expression in alfalfa using a virus induced gene silencing method and heterologous overexpression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). It was found that the open reading frame contains 3213 bp, encoding 1070 amino acids, and the relative molecular weight of the encoded protein is 121.65 kDa. MsPPR1 is a typical member of the PPR protein family, containing multiple PPR repeat domains and locating in the cytoplasm. MsPPR1 was expressed most in leaves, followed by stems and roots, and least in flowers and induced by drought, mannitol and abscisic acid treatments. The expression of MsPPR1 was decreased by the virus induced gene silencing technology in alfalfa, and decrease of MsPPR1 expression significantly reduced the drought resistance of the plants. The MsPPR1-silenced plants were more wilted, the relative water content was significantly reduced, and the relative electrolyte permeability was significantly increased. The heterologous overexpression of MsPPR1 in tobacco enhanced the drought resistance of transgenic tobacco, while the malondialdehyde content significantly decreased and the proline content increased. This study indicates that MsPPR1 is a positive regulatory factor of alfalfa drought resistance and provides a candidate gene for molecular breeding of alfalfa for drought resistance.

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    A multi-trait evaluation of the performance of 16 forage oat varieties in central and southern Heilongjiang Province
    Feng LI, Wen-long LI, Xue LI, Zhong-juan ZHANG, Lin-po BAI, Yu-fei ZHAO, Ya TAO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 82-92.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022473
    Abstract176)   HTML16)    PDF (540KB)(313)       Save

    This research evaluated forage oat varieties for suitability for spring sowing in central and southern Heilongjiang Province to assist the sustainable development of animal husbandry in this region. Our study monitored and analyzed the growth period, lodging resistance, yield traits and nutritional quality of 16 domestic and foreign oat (Avena sativa) varieties, and compiled a multi-trait production performance score using the grey correlation method. The results were as follows: Time from sowing to cutting (milk maturity) for the 16 oat varieties ranged from 83-97 days, during which time Mengshi No.1, Qingyin No.1, Qingyin No.2, Charisma, Helios and Kona did not lodge. Values for plant height, hay yield, fresh yield, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), ether extract (EE), water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and relative feed quality (RFQ), respectively, ranged from 96.40-131.13 cm, 7287.73-14635.76 kg·hm-2, 19366.97-36905.00 kg·hm-2, 8.61%-11.39% dry matter (DM), 42.86%-57.84%DM, 23.52%-34.99%DM, 1.19%-1.88%DM, 3.52%-10.18%DM, and 128.28-208.78. There were significant differences among different varieties in all characteristics evaluated (P<0.05), and the plant heights of Qingyin No.1, Qinghai sweet oats and Heibei were significantly greater than those of other varieties. The hay yields of Mengshi No.1, Kona, Baiyan No.7 and Dahan were significantly higher than those of other varieties; The CP content of Lanniao No.1 was significantly higher than that of other varieties; The NDF contents of Baiyan No.7, Mengshi No.1 and Lanniao No.1 were significantly lower than Charisma and Everleaf, and Mengshi No.1, Baiyan No.7, Souris and Lanniao No.1 had significantly lower ADF than Everleaf. The RFQ value of Baiyan No.7 was significantly higher than that of other varieties. Grey correlation analysis showed that the weighting coefficients for plant height, CP and NDF ranked the top three among all traits and were therefore important characteristics for evaluating oat productivity in this region. Baiyan No.7, Mengshi No.1, Kona, Qingyin No.2 and Qinghai sweet oat had higher grey scores and superior multi-trait performance, and are therefore recommended as suitable for sowing in Heilongjiang Province and similar areas.

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    Economic cost assessment of global invasive plants
    Guang-hua ZHAO, Ming-long GAO, Duo WANG, Shi-qi FAN, Jian TANG, Kuo SUN, Xuan-ye WEN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (5): 16-24.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023220
    Abstract204)   HTML42)    PDF (2111KB)(306)       Save

    Among invasive species, plants comprise the most diverse and numerous biological groups. Assessing the economic cost of invasive plants is an important part of risk management and is essential for the development of policies for control or eradication. In this study, based on the InvaCost database, we assessed the economic costs of global invasive plants from 1970 to 2017. The main results were as follows: 1) The conservative economic cost of invasive plants from 1970 to 2017 was 194.365 billion U.S. dollars (USD), 4.049 billion USD per year on average, of which the direct economic loss amounted to 100.468 billion USD, accounting for 51.69% of the total. 2) Among 64 countries and regions, the United States has borne the highest economic costs, followed by Australia, and China ranks third with costs of 20.831 billion USD (equivalent to 140.707 billion RMB). Notably, Eichhornia crassipes has been the most expensive invasive plant species globally, with the costs of its damage exceeding the combined costs of invasive plants ranking 5th to 10th. 3) Over the past five decades, the economic cost of invasive plants has shown an upward trend. Model estimates suggest that the possible cost of invasive plants in 2017 ranged from 3.438 billion to 10.452 billion USD, with the highest confidence value being 7.725 billion USD. The results of this study contribute to a deeper understanding of the severity of invasive plant threats and provide a scientific basis for more proactive invasive plant management in China.

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    Changes in forage quality and its relationship with plant diversity under fertilization and mowing in Hulun Buir meadow steppe
    Xin-lei XU, Yan-tao SONG, Jing-dong ZHAO, Yun-na WU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2021, 30 (7): 1-10.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020434
    Abstract364)   HTML28)    PDF (2382KB)(595)       Save

    This research explored the effect of fertilization and mowing on the nutritional quality of forage in Hulun Buir meadow steppe and its relationship with plant diversity. A mown area was established at the Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, CAS, in 2016. The experimental plots comprised fertilized and unfertilized treatments and six stubble cutting heights. Sampling was carried out in August 2019 and the nutritional components of the samples were determined and their relationship with plant richness was analyzed. It was found that the crude protein content and relative feeding value of forage under the fertilization treatment was significantly higher than without fertilization treatment, while the herbage acid detergent fiber content without fertilization treatment was significantly higher than under fertilization. The crude protein, crude fat, water soluble carbohydrate, relative forage quality and milk yield were the highest when plots were mowed at 3 cm stubble height, while the contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were the highest when plots were unmown. There was no significant interaction between fertilization and mowing. The relative forage quality, relative feeding value, milk yield, non-fibrous carbohydrate and Ca contents were positively and significantly correlated with species richness; the neutral detergent fiber content was negatively and significantly correlated with species richness, indicating that increase in species diversity improves the nutritional value of forage. Therefore, management methods that maintain high plant species richness in plant communities may be more effective for livestock production in Hulun Buir grassland.

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    Progress in studies of molecular mechanisms and applications of somatic cell regeneration during genetic transformation
    Yu-zhu LI, Jiang-di YU, Fei-fei DING, Jia-min MIAO, Xiao-ming BAI, Shang-li SHI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (2): 198-211.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023147
    Abstract174)   HTML11)    PDF (578KB)(304)       Save

    Plant genetic transformation is the key of transgenic technology, genome editing, functional genomics research and molecular breeding. Species and genotype differences are often the main bottlenecks limiting the efficiency of genetic transformation and the wide application of gene editing technology. With the molecular mechanism of de novo shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis being gradually explored, the growth and developmental regulatory genes involved in the synthesis, response and signal transduction of auxin and cytokinin in callus formation, proliferation and regeneration are used to improve genetic transformation efficiency. In this study, we first review the different ways and means of achieving somatic cell regeneration after genetic transformation, and the molecular mechanisms of regeneration for the transformed cells through indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Then, the application of regeneration-promoting genes related to auxin and cytokinin in improving regeneration efficiency, shortening transformation time, and realizing genetic transformation of recalcitrant species and genotypes was discussed. Finally, the potential for application of regeneration-promoting genes when working with transgenic and gene-edited cells were summarized and current research directions were discussed.

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    Spatio-temporal changes in grassland fractional vegetation cover in Inner Mongolia from 2000 to 2020 and a future forecast
    Hui-long ZHANG, Xiu-chun YANG, Dong YANG, Ang CHEN, Min ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (8): 1-13.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022370
    Abstract357)   HTML148)    PDF (5420KB)(304)       Save

    Inner Mongolia is an important green ecological barrier in northern China, and grassland degradation in this region is of great concern. Fractional vegetation cover (FVC) is one of the most direct indicators of grassland ecological status. At present, it is still a challenge to build an accurate FVC estimation model for dynamic analysis of a large region over a long period of time. In this study, we used a large ground survey dataset, MODIS remote sensing data, and meteorological data from 2000 to 2020, and applied the random forest model for FVC partition modeling and prediction. The Sen+Mann-Kendall trend analysis method and Hurst index method were used to analyze the spatio-temporal changes in the FVC and its future trends. The main results were as follows: 1) The precision of each partition of the random forest model was better than that of the whole region, which effectively reduced the impact of spatial heterogeneity. 2) In Inner Mongolia, the grassland FVC generally showed a spatial pattern of being high in the east and low in the west, with obvious spatial differences. 3) In the past 21 years, the FVC of grassland in Inner Mongolia showed a fluctuating upward trend overall, the area of increased FVC was larger than the area of decreased FVC, and the magnitude of the extremely significant increase and significant increase was greater than that of the extremely significant decrease and significant decrease. 4) In the future, the grassland FVC in Inner Mongolia will generally improve. The area of FVC growth is larger than the area of FVC decrease, and the area with extremely significant growth and significant growth accounts for a high proportion (25.9%) of the total area. It is predicted that vegetation growth will develop well in the future.

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    Research progress on “desert ginseng”- Cistanche deserticola and Cynomeorium songaricum
    HAO Yuan-yuan, YUE Li-jun, KANG Jian-jun, WANG Suo-min
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2012, 21 (2): 286-293.  
    Abstract255)      PDF (539KB)(1081)       Save
    Cistanche deserticola and Cynomeorium songaricum are parasitic higher-plants distributed in desert regions of China. They are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as famous tonics. Currently, their new pharmacological roles have been developed and corresponding pharmacological components isolated. Exploitation of C. deserticola and C. songaricum requires preliminary industrialization and their products include drug, health foods and food additives. However, wild C. deserticola and C. songaricum have been classed as world endangered species because of frequent human activity and deteriorating environmental conditions in native regions. At present, artificial inoculation methods of C. deserticola and C. songaricum breeding have achieved preliminary success and interrelations between them and their hosts are clearer thus bringing an opportunity for the conservation and sustainable utilization of C. deserticola and C. songaricum. In this review, recent advances on their morphological characteristics, habitat and distribution, economic value, exploitation and utilization, and artificial breeding as well as effects on host plant growth are summarized. The future directions in this field are also discussed.
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