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    Screening and identification of two potassium solubilizer strains and their effects on the yield and quality of alfalfa
    Yan-jia WANG, Bo-ang HU, Jia-xin CHEN, Li-ting XU, Lin YAO, Li-rong FENG, Chang-hong GUO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (12): 139-149.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023036
    Abstract150)   HTML11)    PDF (2822KB)(683)       Save

    The study aimed to isolate and screen high-efficiency potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB), and to quantify the effects of KSB application on plant yield and quality. The KSB strains were screened by silicate bacteria media from the rhizosphere soil of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and subsequently the strains were identified by morphological, 16S rDNA sequence, and physiological and biochemical analysis. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation with KSB strains on the yield and quality of alfalfa. Two high-efficiency KSB strains XLT-4 and XLT-7 were obtained with potassium solubilization rates of 10.53% and 9.75%>CK, and identified as Priestia megaterium and Peribacillus frigoritolerans, respectively. These two KSB strains had the metabolic capacity for phosphorus solubilization, siderophore-production and indole acetic acid secretion. Inoculation with XLT-4 and XLT-7 significantly increased plant height, root length, dry and fresh weight above ground and below ground, root activity, the contents of P, K and crude protein in leaves, while the contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were significantly lower than in CK plants. In addition, the inoculation of the two KSB also improved the enzyme activity and available potassium content in alfalfa rhizosphere soil. In this study, the two KSB strains made a major contribution to improving the yield and quality of alfalfa, and these two organisms are high quality strain resources for the development of microbial preparations.

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    An evaluation of a remote sensing method based on optimized triangular vegetation index (TVI) for aboveground shrub biomass estimation in shrub-encroached grassland
    Zheng-yong XU, Bin SUN, Wang-fei ZHANG, Yi-fu LI, Zi-yu YAN, Wei YUE, Si-han TENG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 1-14.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022488
    Abstract403)   HTML53)    PDF (2836KB)(604)       Save

    Shrub-encroachment onto grassland is becoming an important ecological problem in grassland ecosystems, and accurate estimation of the shrub above-ground biomass (AGB) in shrub-encroached grassland vegetation plays a significant role in research into regional ecosystem carbon cycles. Due to the dual effects of soil background noise and differences in vegetation growth structure characteristics, the traditional vegetation indices are extremely unstable for model-building involving shrub-encroached grassland AGB estimation. To solve this problem, in this study we developed a novel way by optimizing the triangular vegetation index (TVI) using Sentinel-2 remote sensing data for shrub-encroached grassland AGB estimation. The results showed that: 1) In the area dominated by herbaceous vegetation, TVI calculated using a combination of green, red-edge and near-infrared ( R 560 R 705 and R 865 ) performed best with an R2 of 0.684; in the area dominated by shrub vegetation, the TVI again performed best with R2= 0.368. 2) When analyzing the sensitivity of the 12 commonly used vegetation indexes to soil noise, the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) was the most sensitive to soil noise in the area dominated by herbaceous vegetation; in the area dominated by shrub vegetation, the modified soil adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI) was the most sensitive. 3) In the area dominated by herbaceous vegetation, the optimized vegetation index grassland triangular vegetation index (GTVI) performed better than TVI with the value of R C V 2 (coefficient of determination cross validation) increased by 0.153 and the value of R M S E C V decreased by 12.222 g·m-2; in the area dominated by shrub vegetation, GTVI performed better than TVI and the R C V 2 value increased 0.029, while the R M S E C V (root mean square error cross validation) decreased 1.684 g·m-2. 4) The estimation results acquired by GTVI showed the highest accuracy when compared with the results estimated by the commonly used 12 vegetation indices. The results of this study are expected to provide a scientific basis and reference AGB estimation in shrub-encroached grassland using vegetation indices extracted from remote sensing data.

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    Progress of research on hormone regulation of branching or tillering in plants
    Fen-qi CHEN, Jin-qing ZHANG, Hui-ling MA
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (2): 212-225.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023118
    Abstract259)   HTML19)    PDF (1243KB)(527)       Save

    Branching (or tillering in grasses and related taxa) is an important trait of plant architecture and the result of axillary bud initiation and growth, which plays a crucial role in determining the seed yield of crops and forage yield. Multiple hormones and their interactions play key regulatory roles in the occurrence, growth and development of plant branching or tillering. In addition, environmental factors also regulate branching or tillering by changing the hormone contents and their balances within the plant. This study reviews multiple aspects of the mechanisms by which plant branching or tillering is regulated various hormones, including auxin, cytokinin, strigolactones, brassinosteroids, abscisic acid and gibberellins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and complex regulatory networks formed by the interaction of different hormone signals. The aim is to establish a foundation for using hormone regulation mechanisms to cultivate new high-yielding crop plant growth forms with ideal plant architecture. The current issues with hormone regulation mechanisms controlling plant branching or tillering are also analyzed, and future research directions for hormone regulation mechanisms controlling plant branching or tillering are discussed, with the aim of providing a theoretical basis for using hormones to cultivate good varieties.

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    Nitrogen fertilizer threshold and uncertainty analysis of typical grassland on the northern slopes of Tianshan Mountains
    Qi-fei HAN, Long YIN, Chao-fan LI, Run-gang ZHANG, Wen-biao WANG, Zheng-nan CUI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (1): 19-32.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023097
    Abstract115)   HTML14)    PDF (3820KB)(490)       Save

    In the context of climate change and increasing human activities, a series of ecological problems have emerged in arid and semi-arid regions as one of the important and very vulnerable components of the terrestrial ecosystem. Exploring the impact of climate change and human activities on the net primary productivity (NPP) is of great significance for the rational use of natural resources and the sustainable development of agriculture and animal husbandry. Nitrogen fertilization is a way to promote increased NPP and appropriate fertilization can improve the NPP of grassland. To further explore the potential use of N fertilization, this study investigated four grassland types, alpine meadow (AM), mid-mountain forest meadow (MMFM), low mountain dry grassland (LMDG) and plain desert grassland (PDG), distributed along the altitude gradient on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains, and employed a denitrification-decomposition model to analyze the NPP responses of the typical grassland ecosystem in this region to the application of different nitrogen fertilizers, and reveal the nitrogen fertilizer threshold and the optimal fertilization strategy. It was found that: 1) Appropriate nitrogen addition led to an increase in NPP of all types of grassland ecosystems, but there was a threshold value for the response of grassland NPP to fertilizer application, and different types of grassland NPP had different threshold values. There was no unified optimal fertilization method applicable to the four types of grassland. LMDG grassland ecosystem is the most sensitive to nitrogen application. 2) The maximum NPP in PDG grassland was achieved by applying 100 kg·ha-1 nitrate twice a year, and the maximum NPP was 68.72 g C·m-2·yr-1. The maximum NPP fertilization strategy in LMDG grassland is 260 kg·ha-1 of urea applied twice a year, and the maximum NPP value is 263.28 g C·m-2·yr-1. The maximum NPP of MMFM was achieved by applying 80 kg·ha-1 of urea once a year, and the maximum NPP is 171.22 g C·m-2·yr-1. In AM grassland, anhydrous ammonia reached the maximum value of NPP (114.62 g C·m-2·yr-1) with the minimum amount of fertilizer (60 kg·ha-1) and was the best nitrogen fertilizer in this grassland type. 3) The result of Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows that PDG and LMDG is more sensitive to fertilization time, and the effect of fluctuation in fertilizer application rate variation on LMDG and MMFM is more obvious.

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    The grassland agriculture of Mongolia and its capacity to inform development in China
    Zhi-peng HUANG, Yi HUANG, Quan-jun YANG, Chao XIA, Yan ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (6): 1-15.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022265
    Abstract368)   HTML54)    PDF (1778KB)(460)       Save

    Mongolia borders on northern China, has abundant grassland resources and grassland-based livestock husbandry is the pillar industry there. Based on the literature and statistical data, this study surveys the development status of grassland agriculture in Mongolia from three aspects: reform of the pastoral institutional system, the grassland resources, and the development of a grazing-based livestock industry. Our study also analyzes the differences between Mongolia and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Grassland agriculture in Mongolia has undergone three stages of institutional reforms, the post-transformation period began at 1990 and is ongoing till now. The grassland itself is collectively owned and the livestock is privately owned. Under the influences of climate change, over exploitation of grassland, expansion of cultivated land and urban areas, and mining pollution, the grassland area has decreased and the ecological status of the grassland is gradually deteriorating. The proportions for each of Mongolia’s five categories of livestock remain stable but with regional variability and differences. The growth in total livestock numbers is much higher in Mongolia than in Inner Mongolia, China. In recent years, the grazing-based livestock husbandry has faced a problem of an aging population. As a result, the proportion of animal husbandry output value within the national economy has gradually declined and the industrial chain urgently needs to be improved. Finally, this study proposes implications for Mongolia and offers information relevant to the development of grassland agriculture in China.

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    The role of MAPK in plant response to abiotic stress
    Xin-miao ZHANG, Guo-qiang WU, Ming WEI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (1): 182-197.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023090
    Abstract465)   HTML35)    PDF (1316KB)(442)       Save

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a highly conserved serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase, occurring widely in eukaryotic intermediate reaction pathways. Plant MAPK has 11 relatively conserved sub-domains, which are all essential elements for Ser/Thr protein kinase to play its catalytic role, and its expression is regulated by reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and hormones. MAPK phosphorylates a variety of substrates including transcription factors, protein kinases and cytoskeleton related proteins, and plays an important role in regulating plant response to abiotic stresses (salt, drought, extreme temperature, and heavy metals). In this review, we summarize the results of research on the discovery of plant MAPK family members, their structure and classification, regulatory mechanisms, and their roles in response to various abiotic stresses. We also propose directions for future research. The information in this review provides a theoretical basis and identifies genetic resources for the genetic improvement of crops to produce new, stress-resistant varieties.

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    Research progress on remote sensing discrimination techniques for grassland botanical species
    Meng-ge HUANG, Xin-hong WANG, Ling-ling MA, Xue-hua YE, Xiao-hua ZHU, Wei-ping KONG, Ning WANG, Qi WANG, Guang-zhou OUYANG, Qing-chuan ZHENG, Xiao-xin HOU, Ling-li TANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (6): 167-185.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022278
    Abstract294)   HTML21)    PDF (1661KB)(401)       Save

    Grassland is an important resource bank for regional economic development and a crucial ecological reservoir for the security of China’s land-based ecological environment. Remote sensing technology is rapid, efficient, and low-cost, and therefore provides the mainstream technical means for large-scale grassland monitoring. The use of remote sensing technology to discriminate grassland species is an important way to monitor the population dynamics and botanical community succession in grassland. Such information is conducive to the timely and accurate detection of changes in the grassland ecological environment and provides an important reference for the scientific management of grassland ecosystems and the construction of an ecologically aware civilization. This study focuses on the problem of remote sensing discrimination of grassland species, clarifies the technical process of grassland species discrimination and introduces the latest research progress. Technical difficulties are covered from three perspectives: The characteristics of the main remote sensing data sources for grassland species discrimination and their acquisition techniques, important grassland species discrimination features and their mining techniques and the current commonly used grassland species discrimination methods and models. This study concludes that hyperspectral and LiDAR remote sensing and their fusion technologies have application prospects in the remote sensing discrimination of grassland species, and that the deep mining of multidimensional features and the effective combination of complementary features can improve the accuracy of grassland species discrimination. This study identifies the main problems of the current remote sensing discrimination technology for grassland species, and opens the prospect of the future precise discrimination of grassland species through remote sensing technology and thereby provides a theoretical reference for a thorough understanding of the field of remote sensing identification of grassland species and in-depth research on grassland species discrimination.

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    Research progress on vigor estimation for forage seeds
    Qi-bo TAO, Xi-hu QIE, Qian ZHANG, Yu-xuan GAO, Ya-qi ZHANG, Rui-zhen ZHANG, Xiao-fei CHEN, Tian-xiu NIU, Xiao-tong SUN, Yu-ting NIE, Ya-ru LIU, Jia-qi HU, Shang-zhi ZHONG, Juan SUN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 200-225.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023007
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    High-quality forage seeds are fundamental materials for grass-husbandry industry development and ecological restoration in China. Seed vigor is an important aspect of evaluate seed quality. The efficient vigor estimation of forage seeds is of great importance for selection of high-quality seed lots for cultivated grassland establishment and improvement of natural grassland, and is therefore critical to ensuring food and ecological security. Numerous studies on diverse forage seed vigor estimation methods and their ability to predict field performance have been carried out and published. In this study, the concepts and methodologies for forage seed vigor estimation are summarized, with particular emphasis on the estimation principles and their application in forage seed vigor estimation of some of the more commonly used methods. Coverage of this review includes forage seed physical properties, germination and seedling growth characteristics, stress testing, physiological and biochemical indicators, and advanced technologies. Future prospects in this field are also identified and discussed, to provide necessary direction for the improvement of future research.

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    Ecological value and its spatiotemporal dynamic patterns of grassland in China
    Jia-hui LI, Lin HUANG, Jiang-wen FAN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (12): 1-13.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023058
    Abstract256)   HTML37)    PDF (5832KB)(386)       Save

    As China’s largest terrestrial ecosystem and one of the important natural resources, grasslands provide a series of ecosystem services which contribute to human well-being. However, there are still wide expanses of grassland suffering from various degrees of degradation, and requiring urgent conservation and restoration action to improve their quality, function and stability. Accounting of grassland ecological value provides an effective means to monitor the changes in and assess the combined importance of multiple grassland ecosystem functions. This study analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution of grassland ecological value in China from 2000 to 2020. It then assessed the spatiotemporal dynamics of the value of key ecological services of grasslands, including windbreak and sand fixation, water conservation, forage supply and carbon sequestration. Next, adaptation strategies for optimizing and enhancing the grassland ecological value in China were proposed. It was found that in 2020, the ecological value of China’s grassland was 2.47×104 billion CNY, and the value was 7.6 million CNY·km-2, among which the value per unit area of windbreak and sand fixation and species richness maintenance were relatively high, accounting for 27.3% and 25.8% of the total, respectively. In the past 20 years, more than 90% of China’s grassland area has shown an increasing trend in ecological value. This applies especially to grassland located on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the northern Loess Plateau, and the eastern and central parts of Inner Mongolia indicate a rapid growth. Moreover, the sum of grassland ecological values of Mongolia, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan and Xinjiang accounted for about 67.4% of China’s total ecological value. In the past 20 years, Shaanxi, Beijing, Ningxia, Tianjin, and Shanxi showed a relatively high growth rate in grassland ecological value (>65%). Finally, China’s grasslands were divided into three categories and twelve subcategories, based on grassland protection and restoration strategies focusing on different key ecological services. Our study offers significant insights for assigning various protection and restoration priorities to achieve sustainable growth in grassland ecological value.

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    Response of soil organic phosphorus mineralization to alpine meadow degradation and temperature
    Hong-yu QIAN, Yu-lin PU, Shan-xin LANG, Yi-ran LI, Nan-ding ZHOU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 15-27.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022469
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    Clarification of the mineralization characteristics of organic phosphorus in degraded grassland soils at different temperatures can provide basic data and a theoretical framework for the scientific management of soil phosphorus nutrients during the ecological recovery of degraded grassland. In this research, an aerobic culture method at constant temperature and humidity was used to investigate the mineralization characteristics and temperature responses of organic phosphorus in non-degraded (ND) meadow, and lightly degraded (LD), moderately degraded (MD) and heavily degraded (HD) soils on the Zoige Plateau. It was found that the mineralization rate of organic phosphorus showed no obvious change in the early stage (0-30 d), increased rapidly in the middle stage (30-60 d), and gradually stabilized in the late stage (60-120 d) when the four types of meadow soils were cultured at 5-15 ℃. Meadow degradation had no significant effect on soil organic phosphorus mineralization at low temperature (5-10 ℃). However, soil organic phosphorus mineralization was significantly reduced in MD and HD soils at high temperature (≥15 ℃). Compared with ND, the net mineralization rate of organic phosphorus in MD and HD soils decreased by 52.8% and 56.8%, respectively, at 15 ℃, and the constant B0 of soil organic phosphorus mineralization decreased by 29.5% and 40.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the temperature sensitivity of soil organic phosphorus mineralization decreased gradually with increased severity of meadow degradation. For example, the temperature sensitivity coefficient y" of organic phosphorus mineralization in ND soil was significantly higher than that in MD and HD soils by 221.1% and 306.7%, respectively. In summary, the degradation of alpine meadow reduced the mineralization and temperature sensitivity of soil organic phosphorus, which would be predicted to result in further reduction of soil phosphorus availability, and exacerbate any problem of phosphorus limitation in degraded grassland ecosystems arising from ongoing global warming.

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    Chinese grassland insurance development model, practical difficulties and system construction
    Tao QIN, Cai-xia ZHU, Jian-he WANG, Jin ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 226-246.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022471
    Abstract196)   HTML8)    PDF (5348KB)(340)       Save

    Grassland is an important ecological security barrier, animal husbandry base and carbon reservoir carrier in China, and building a risk guarantee system with grassland insurance as the core is of great value for protecting the grassland ecological environment, promoting rural revitalization in pastoral areas and achieving the ‘dual carbon’ goal of peak carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and carbon neutrality before 2060,and it plays a key role in global climate governance. Through literature review and qualitative comparative analysis, it is found that the United States, Canada and France, among others, have established different forms of grassland product insurance systems, with index insurance as the core mechanism to transfer forage risks. However, Chinese grassland insurance is currently in the exploration stages. A current pilot phase, has not yet established a product system that is aligned with Chinese national conditions. During the pilot work, many constraints have emerged. There are some difficulties in collecting premiums, the promotion of the system lacks uniformity, the product supply power is insufficient, there is no theoretical basis for determination of premium rates, and the cost of determining loss claims is too high. Therefore, China needs to improve the grassland insurance policy system and product system as soon as possible, and build a linkage mechanism for central and local premium subsidies. Improvement of the multi-level disaster risk protection system and innovation introduction should include: The development model of a “comprehensive insurance+index insurance”; Development of diversified insurance products to meet the diversified risk management needs of insured entities; Promotion of the process of grassland risk zoning and rate determination, and establishing a differentiated dynamic pricing mechanism; Formulation of unified technical standards for survey and loss assessment; Improvement of the underwriting claim mechanism; Improvement of the level of grassland insurance technology and enhancement of the innovation level; And increase in the service capabilities of insurance products.

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    Cloning and function analysis of MsPPR1 in alfalfa under drought stress
    Shao-peng WANG, Jia LIU, Jun HONG, Ji-zhen LIN, Yi ZHANG, Kun SHI, Zan WANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (7): 49-60.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022425
    Abstract204)   HTML15)    PDF (4774KB)(316)       Save

    Drought is an important environmental factor affecting plant growth, development and yield. pentatricopeptide repeats (PPR) family proteins play important roles in plant growth, development, stress response and other physiological processes. In this study, an MsPPR1 gene was cloned from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cv. Zhongmu No.1, and the drought resistance function of MsPPR1 was investigated through decreasing its expression in alfalfa using a virus induced gene silencing method and heterologous overexpression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). It was found that the open reading frame contains 3213 bp, encoding 1070 amino acids, and the relative molecular weight of the encoded protein is 121.65 kDa. MsPPR1 is a typical member of the PPR protein family, containing multiple PPR repeat domains and locating in the cytoplasm. MsPPR1 was expressed most in leaves, followed by stems and roots, and least in flowers and induced by drought, mannitol and abscisic acid treatments. The expression of MsPPR1 was decreased by the virus induced gene silencing technology in alfalfa, and decrease of MsPPR1 expression significantly reduced the drought resistance of the plants. The MsPPR1-silenced plants were more wilted, the relative water content was significantly reduced, and the relative electrolyte permeability was significantly increased. The heterologous overexpression of MsPPR1 in tobacco enhanced the drought resistance of transgenic tobacco, while the malondialdehyde content significantly decreased and the proline content increased. This study indicates that MsPPR1 is a positive regulatory factor of alfalfa drought resistance and provides a candidate gene for molecular breeding of alfalfa for drought resistance.

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    A multi-trait evaluation of the performance of 16 forage oat varieties in central and southern Heilongjiang Province
    Feng LI, Wen-long LI, Xue LI, Zhong-juan ZHANG, Lin-po BAI, Yu-fei ZHAO, Ya TAO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 82-92.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022473
    Abstract176)   HTML16)    PDF (540KB)(313)       Save

    This research evaluated forage oat varieties for suitability for spring sowing in central and southern Heilongjiang Province to assist the sustainable development of animal husbandry in this region. Our study monitored and analyzed the growth period, lodging resistance, yield traits and nutritional quality of 16 domestic and foreign oat (Avena sativa) varieties, and compiled a multi-trait production performance score using the grey correlation method. The results were as follows: Time from sowing to cutting (milk maturity) for the 16 oat varieties ranged from 83-97 days, during which time Mengshi No.1, Qingyin No.1, Qingyin No.2, Charisma, Helios and Kona did not lodge. Values for plant height, hay yield, fresh yield, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), ether extract (EE), water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and relative feed quality (RFQ), respectively, ranged from 96.40-131.13 cm, 7287.73-14635.76 kg·hm-2, 19366.97-36905.00 kg·hm-2, 8.61%-11.39% dry matter (DM), 42.86%-57.84%DM, 23.52%-34.99%DM, 1.19%-1.88%DM, 3.52%-10.18%DM, and 128.28-208.78. There were significant differences among different varieties in all characteristics evaluated (P<0.05), and the plant heights of Qingyin No.1, Qinghai sweet oats and Heibei were significantly greater than those of other varieties. The hay yields of Mengshi No.1, Kona, Baiyan No.7 and Dahan were significantly higher than those of other varieties; The CP content of Lanniao No.1 was significantly higher than that of other varieties; The NDF contents of Baiyan No.7, Mengshi No.1 and Lanniao No.1 were significantly lower than Charisma and Everleaf, and Mengshi No.1, Baiyan No.7, Souris and Lanniao No.1 had significantly lower ADF than Everleaf. The RFQ value of Baiyan No.7 was significantly higher than that of other varieties. Grey correlation analysis showed that the weighting coefficients for plant height, CP and NDF ranked the top three among all traits and were therefore important characteristics for evaluating oat productivity in this region. Baiyan No.7, Mengshi No.1, Kona, Qingyin No.2 and Qinghai sweet oat had higher grey scores and superior multi-trait performance, and are therefore recommended as suitable for sowing in Heilongjiang Province and similar areas.

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    Economic cost assessment of global invasive plants
    Guang-hua ZHAO, Ming-long GAO, Duo WANG, Shi-qi FAN, Jian TANG, Kuo SUN, Xuan-ye WEN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (5): 16-24.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023220
    Abstract204)   HTML42)    PDF (2111KB)(306)       Save

    Among invasive species, plants comprise the most diverse and numerous biological groups. Assessing the economic cost of invasive plants is an important part of risk management and is essential for the development of policies for control or eradication. In this study, based on the InvaCost database, we assessed the economic costs of global invasive plants from 1970 to 2017. The main results were as follows: 1) The conservative economic cost of invasive plants from 1970 to 2017 was 194.365 billion U.S. dollars (USD), 4.049 billion USD per year on average, of which the direct economic loss amounted to 100.468 billion USD, accounting for 51.69% of the total. 2) Among 64 countries and regions, the United States has borne the highest economic costs, followed by Australia, and China ranks third with costs of 20.831 billion USD (equivalent to 140.707 billion RMB). Notably, Eichhornia crassipes has been the most expensive invasive plant species globally, with the costs of its damage exceeding the combined costs of invasive plants ranking 5th to 10th. 3) Over the past five decades, the economic cost of invasive plants has shown an upward trend. Model estimates suggest that the possible cost of invasive plants in 2017 ranged from 3.438 billion to 10.452 billion USD, with the highest confidence value being 7.725 billion USD. The results of this study contribute to a deeper understanding of the severity of invasive plant threats and provide a scientific basis for more proactive invasive plant management in China.

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    Progress in studies of molecular mechanisms and applications of somatic cell regeneration during genetic transformation
    Yu-zhu LI, Jiang-di YU, Fei-fei DING, Jia-min MIAO, Xiao-ming BAI, Shang-li SHI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (2): 198-211.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023147
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    Plant genetic transformation is the key of transgenic technology, genome editing, functional genomics research and molecular breeding. Species and genotype differences are often the main bottlenecks limiting the efficiency of genetic transformation and the wide application of gene editing technology. With the molecular mechanism of de novo shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis being gradually explored, the growth and developmental regulatory genes involved in the synthesis, response and signal transduction of auxin and cytokinin in callus formation, proliferation and regeneration are used to improve genetic transformation efficiency. In this study, we first review the different ways and means of achieving somatic cell regeneration after genetic transformation, and the molecular mechanisms of regeneration for the transformed cells through indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Then, the application of regeneration-promoting genes related to auxin and cytokinin in improving regeneration efficiency, shortening transformation time, and realizing genetic transformation of recalcitrant species and genotypes was discussed. Finally, the potential for application of regeneration-promoting genes when working with transgenic and gene-edited cells were summarized and current research directions were discussed.

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    Spatio-temporal changes in grassland fractional vegetation cover in Inner Mongolia from 2000 to 2020 and a future forecast
    Hui-long ZHANG, Xiu-chun YANG, Dong YANG, Ang CHEN, Min ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (8): 1-13.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022370
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    Inner Mongolia is an important green ecological barrier in northern China, and grassland degradation in this region is of great concern. Fractional vegetation cover (FVC) is one of the most direct indicators of grassland ecological status. At present, it is still a challenge to build an accurate FVC estimation model for dynamic analysis of a large region over a long period of time. In this study, we used a large ground survey dataset, MODIS remote sensing data, and meteorological data from 2000 to 2020, and applied the random forest model for FVC partition modeling and prediction. The Sen+Mann-Kendall trend analysis method and Hurst index method were used to analyze the spatio-temporal changes in the FVC and its future trends. The main results were as follows: 1) The precision of each partition of the random forest model was better than that of the whole region, which effectively reduced the impact of spatial heterogeneity. 2) In Inner Mongolia, the grassland FVC generally showed a spatial pattern of being high in the east and low in the west, with obvious spatial differences. 3) In the past 21 years, the FVC of grassland in Inner Mongolia showed a fluctuating upward trend overall, the area of increased FVC was larger than the area of decreased FVC, and the magnitude of the extremely significant increase and significant increase was greater than that of the extremely significant decrease and significant decrease. 4) In the future, the grassland FVC in Inner Mongolia will generally improve. The area of FVC growth is larger than the area of FVC decrease, and the area with extremely significant growth and significant growth accounts for a high proportion (25.9%) of the total area. It is predicted that vegetation growth will develop well in the future.

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    Accumulation and functions of polyamines in plants under drought stress
    Wen-juan WANG, Shang-li SHI, Long HE, Bei WU, Chan-chan LIU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (6): 186-202.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022303
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    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that causes reductions in crop yields. Polyamines are a class of low molecular weight aliphatic nitrogenous bases in plants. They have strong biological activity and are involved in a range of physiological processes such as plant organogenesis, embryogenesis, bud differentiation, leaf senescence, pollen tube growth, and fruit development and ripening. They also play important roles in plants under drought stress. In this paper, we review research on the anabolism and catabolism of polyamines, their functions under abiotic stress, and differences in their accumulation among species/varieties of plants under drought stress. We also discuss studies on the effects of exogenous polyamines and those using transgenic approaches to elucidate the roles of polyamines at the physiological level. The body of research on polyamines has shown that they enhance drought resistance by improving plant growth and development, photosynthetic capacity, accumulation of osmoregulatory substances, and antioxidant capacity, and that they participate in signal transduction at the molecular level in plants under drought stress.

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    Comparative metabolomics analysis of root systems of two Dactylis glomerata cultivars in response to submergence stress
    Bing-na SHEN, Pan-pan SHANG, Bing(student) ZENG, Lin-xiang LI, Xing-yun YANG, Lei BI, Yu-qian ZHENG, Ming-hao QU, Wen-wen LI, Xiao-li ZHOU, Jun RAO, Bing(teacher) ZENG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 40-57.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022461
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    Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) is a world famous temperate cold-season forage grass. In recent years, frequent floods in southern China have seriously affected forage crop production. In order to explore the response mechanism of orchard grass roots under submergence stress, the waterlogging-tolerant orchard grass cultivar ‘Dianbei’ (DB) and the waterlogging-sensitive orchard grass cultivar ‘Anba’ (AB) were studied. Two waterlogging treatments (8 and 24 h) were set up, and a non-waterlogging treatment was used as the control (0 h). The morphology was observed and metabolomics analysis was performed on the seedling roots for 0, 8 and 24 h treatments. It was found that the root growth of the two varieties became weak and the roots became black after submergence stress treatment, and adventitious roots were produced by cultivar DB after treatment for 24 h. 120 differentially produced metabolites were identified in the DB8h vs DB0h comparison and 155 differentially produced metabolites were identified in the DB24h vs DB0h comparison, while 93 differentially produced metabolites were identified in the AB8h vs AB0h comparison and 118 differentially produced metabolites were identified in the AB24h vs AB0h comparison. Between cultivars, 80 differentially produced metabolites were identified in the DB0h vs AB0h comparison; 125 differentially produced metabolites were identified in the DB8h vs AB8h comparison and 48 significantly differentially produced metabolites were identified in the DB24h vs AB24h group. Six flavonoids involved in the metabolic pathway of flavonoid biosynthesis were found in the waterlogging-tolerant orchard grass cultivar DB, namely: Hesperidin, glycyrrhizin, apigenin, neohesperidin, naringin and naringenin; While four amino acids and their derivatives were found in the waterlogging-sensitive orchard grass cultivar, namely: O-phosphate-L-serine, L-glutamic acid, L-tyrosine and tryptophan. These amino acids are involved in the metabolic pathway of amyl-tRNA biosynthesis; Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism; Glucosinolate biosynthesis; Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis and the tryptophan metabolic pathway. Comparison of the differential metabolites of DB and AB under the same duration of flooding stress indicated that the main differentially produced metabolites present in DB were sucrose, isomaltose, alginate 6-phosphate, L-ornithine, L-histidine, D-ornithine and apigenin, and the metabolic pathways involved were ABC transport factor, starch and sucrose metabolism, β-alanine metabolism flavonoid biosynthesis and flavonoid and flavonol biosynthesis. These differentially produced metabolites may be responsible for the differences in waterlogging tolerance between the two species. The results provide a basis for resolving the differentially produced metabolites and metabolic pathways in orchard grass in response to submergence stress, and provide a reference for further studies on the molecular mechanisms of orchard grass metabolic regulation in response to submergence stress.

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    Using the model MaxEnt to predict plant distribution patterns of different functional groups in the alpine meadow ecosystem on Sichuan-Yunnan Plateau
    Zhi-yuan YOU, Shu-juan MA, Chang-ting WANG, Lu-ming DING, Xiao-yan SONG, Gao-fei YIN, Jun MAO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (3): 1-12.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023146
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    This research explored the spatial distribution patterns of different main functional groups in the alpine meadow ecosystem on the Sichuan-Yunnan Plateau. Data used were from the second scientific research program on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 2019 to 2021. The aim was to identify suitable habitats for functional groups, the main climatic factors affecting functional group distribution, and the change trends under climate change. The model MaxEnt was used to predict the special distribution pattern and the main relating climatic factors of four major species from four functional groups (Cyperaceae: Kobresia humilis; Poaceae: Elymus nutans; Mixed grass: Potentilla anserina and Fabaceae: Gueldenstaedtia diversifolia). The results showed that the areas of suitable habitats for K. humilisE. nutansP. anserina and G. diversifolia under the current climate conditions were 110900, 92300, 171200 and 165300 km2 respectively, mainly located in the central and northern regions of the Sichuan-Yunnan Plateau. The contribution rate and response curve for environmental factors showed that the habitat suitability of the four species had similarities with their ecological environment requirements. The temperature-related factors such as annual temperature range, isothermality and annual mean temperature were the main environmental factors to affect species distribution. From the future perspective, the suitable habitat of the alpine herbage species will expand under global warming, and the suitable average altitude will increase 100-200 m, but the rate of change will tend to slow down. In conclusion, the species diversity, biomass and stability of alpine meadow ecosystems is predicted to increase with climate change.

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    Responses of soil water conservation function and soil physicochemical properties to a range of degradation conditions in alpine meadows of the Three River Headwater Region
    Yu SUN, Yong-sheng YANG, Qi HE, Jun-bang WANG, Xiu-juan ZHANG, Hui-ting LI, Xing-liang XU, Hua-kun ZHOU, Yu-heng ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (6): 16-29.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022291
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    The soil water-holding capacity and physicochemical properties are important indicators of the water conservation function of soil, and it is important to understand how these factors change under various condition for the ecological protection and restoration of alpine meadows. In this study, we analyzed the effects of different degradation levels on the soil water-holding capacity and physicochemical properties of soil in alpine meadows, as well as correlations between these factors, in both field and laboratory-based experiments. The filed experiments were conducted in Maqin County, Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, in the Three River Headwater Region. The main findings were as follows: 1) The saturation water-holding capacity, capillary water-holding capacity, and field water-holding capacity of the 0-10 cm soil horizon of alpine meadows decreased with increasing severity of degradation. The degradation level had the most significant effect on the water-holding capacity in the 0-5 cm soil surface horizon. Compared with soil at the native vegetation site, soil at the heavily degraded site showed significantly decreased (P<0.05) saturation water-holding capacity, capillary water-holding capacity, and field water-holding capacity in 0-5 cm soil horizon decreased by 51.99%, 56.28%, and 59.93%, respectively. 2) With increasing severity of degradation, the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total carbon contents in the 0-5 cm soil horizon gradually decreased, but there was no significant change in total potassium content. Compared with soil at the native vegetation site, the soil at the heavily degraded site showed significantly decreased (P<0.05) contents of total C, total N, and total P in the 0-5 cm soil horizon decreased by 41.95%, 65.88%, and 21.82%, respectively. As the severity of degradation increased, the soil organic carbon content and total porosity showed a decreasing trend, and soil pH and bulk density showed a significant increasing trend. 3) A redundancy analysis showed that saturated water-holding capacity, capillary water-holding capacity, and field water-holding capacity were significantly correlated with total soil N and capillary porosity (P<0.05), and the positive correlation with capillary porosity was highly significant (P<0.01). The saturated water-holding capacity, capillary water-holding capacity, and field water-holding capacity were significantly negatively correlated with soil bulk density and pH (P<0.05), Capillary porosity and soil total K were not correlated with the field water-holding capacity, but were the main factors determining saturated hydraulic conductivity. These findings indicate that alpine meadow degradation has the most significant effect on the top soil horizon and strengthening the protection of the top soil horizon is the key to maintaining the water conservation function of the soil.

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    Advances in technologies to detect the seed vigor of grasses
    Hui-fang YAN, Yu-ting NIE, Li-li CONG, Zhao ZHANG, Kai-lun CUI, Yan-zhen LYU, Mao-feng CHAI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (11): 199-211.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023043
    Abstract188)   HTML8)    PDF (613KB)(254)       Save

    Grass seeds are the fundamental materials for creating artificial grassland, improving the ecological environment of degraded grassland, and ensuring the production potential of grassland for grazing animals. Seed vigor directly affects the production and development of the grassland industry. In China and abroad, seed vigor detection technology has always been an important focus of seed science and technology. However, few studies have focused on the application of seed vigor detection technologies to grass seeds. At present, seed vigor detection technology in grasses includes destructive and non-destructive detection. In this review, we describe recent advances in seed vigor detection in grasses. We introduce destructive detection technologies based on seed germination behavior and physiological and biochemical characteristics, and non-destructive detection technologies based on optical characteristics and appearance characteristics. Additionally, we discuss trends in the development and potential applications of non-destructive technologies to assess seed vigor in grasses. The results of such analyses can provide a reference for the accurate determination of grass seed vigor.

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    Real-time monitoring and analysis algorithm for key biophysical indicators of cultivated alfalfa in a grassland intelligent perception system
    Chun-li MIAO, Zhong-xian LI, Zhi-cheng ZHAO, Shuai FU, Jin-long GAO, Jie LIU, Qi-sheng FENG, Tian-gang LIANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (12): 90-103.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023046
    Abstract147)   HTML13)    PDF (1797KB)(241)       Save

    Alfalfa, as an important high-quality forage, plays a vital role in the development of grassland animal husbandry. Traditional ground surveys and satellite remote sensing to evaluate large-scale alfalfa cover and yield are easily affected by weather, manpower, and financial factors, and have certain limitations when used in spatio-temporal dynamic monitoring. In recent years, with the rapid development of sensors and artificial intelligence (AI) and their widespread application in crop monitoring and analysis, new methods have been developed for accurate and real-time estimation of alfalfa cover and yield. In this study, alfalfa cover and yield estimation models were established using deep learning (DL) and multiple linear regression (MLR) and random forest (RF) methods combined with ground-measured data for alfalfa cultivated in four northern provinces of Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, and Ningxia. The accuracy of all the models was evaluated. It was found that: 1) In general, cultivated alfalfa in northern Xinjiang, Hexi in Gansu, and other regions is mainly irrigated, with concentrated and contiguous plots and flat terrain, and is harvested three to four times a year, with an average yield and vegetation cover of 5362.81 kg·ha-1 and 96.29%, respectively, at the peak growth period. Alfalfa in Eastern Gansu, southern Ningxia, and other regions is mainly cultivated using a dryland production system, is mostly grown on horizontal terraces in mountainous areas, and is harvested two to three times a year, with an average yield and cover of 3987.57 kg·ha-1 and 91.55%, respectively, at the peak growth period. 2) For the alfalfa cover deep learning model using unmanned aerial vehicle visible light remote sensing data as inputs, the R2 was 0.99, the root mean squared error was 1.44%, and the model accuracy was 92%, indicative of good ability to dynamically monitor cultivated alfalfa cover. 3) Compared with the MLR model, the RF model based on longitude, latitude, altitude, and key biophysical indicators of alfalfa height, cover, and their product provided more accurate estimates of alfalfa yield. The R2 of the optimal estimation model test set was 0.69, and the RMSE was 1151.24 kg·ha-1. In summary, we have established an intelligent perception system based on an algorithm for the rapid evaluation of key biophysical indicators of cultivated alfalfa. These findings provide technical support for the application of networked, automated, and intelligent alfalfa growth data acquisition and dynamic analysis systems in multiple locations and with a high frequency.

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    Effects of dietary broad bean skin on growth rate, slaughter performance, organ development and meat quality of Hu sheep
    Zhao WANG, Jing LIU, Hao YU, Peng LI, Wei-qiang NIU, Yong-jie WAN, Yan-li ZHANG, Da-gan MAO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 162-172.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022472
    Abstract133)   HTML9)    PDF (629KB)(240)       Save

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a dietary broad bean skin supplement on growth rate, slaughter performance, organ development and meat quality of Hu sheep. Healthy 4-month-old male Hu sheep (n=60; 27.00±2.00 kg) were randomly divided into four treatment groups of 15 animals (3 replicates in each group and 5 sheep in each replicate) and fed diets containing 0% (control, Group C), 10% (Group I), 20% (Group II) and 30% (Group III) broad bean skin. The trial period was 60 days. Compared with the control group, the body weight, average daily feed intake and daily gain of Hu sheep in groups fed broad bean skin were very significantly increased (P<0.01). In Group III, the carcass weight (19.62±0.73 vs 17.75±0.86 kg) and live weight before slaughter (37.22±1.01 vs 34.76±0.71 kg) were very significantly increased (P<0.01) compared to Group C while the area of eye muscle was significantly increased (35.84±2.47 vs 27.84±0.13 cm2P<0.05); The liver weight tended to be increased (670.00±73.37 vs 588.00±49.87 g, P=0.071), the rumen weight (659.40±66.44 vs 548.00±75.48 g) and small intestine weight (1107.80±150.56 vs 901.00±41.32 g) were significantly increased (P<0.05); The cross-sectional area of muscle fiber was extremely significantly lower (584.67±32.01 vs 832.90±53.48 μm2P<0.01); The glutamic acid content was very significantly increased (37.74±1.64 vs 13.19±3.38 mg·g-1P<0.01); The contents of arginine (19.08±1.28 vs 11.25±2.39 mg·g-1) and nonessential amino acids (118.44±1.98 vs 90.59±9.56 mg·g-1) were significantly higher (P<0.05), and the contents of valine (12.40±1.09 vs 7.98±1.61 mg·g-1P=0.086) and essential amino acids (135.25±3.51 vs 106.79±11.14 mg·g-1P=0.071) tended to increase. In summary, the addition of broad bean skin to the diet improved the growth rate, slaughter performance, gastrointestinal development, muscular fiber and amino acid composition of Hu sheep, and the data provide a scientific basis for ration formulation incorporating broad bean skin in the production of Hu sheep.

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    Progress in research on fungal diseases of the genus Elymus
    Long-hai XUE, Jia-qi LIU, Chun-jie LI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (2): 226-241.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023132
    Abstract107)   HTML7)    PDF (918KB)(240)       Save

    Elymus species are widely used as forage grasses on the Tibetan Plateau and widely grown in alpine pasture areas such as Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Tibet and Sichuan Province, China. Disease is one of the important factors limiting the production and utilization of the genus Elymus. In sown grassland, disease will directly affect the yield and quality of forages. In natural grassland, Elymus plants are also an important vector contributing to the spread of many pathogens. This pathogen spread seriously affects the productivity of grassland agricultural ecosystems. Based on a review of published domestic and international literature, the etiology, conditions of occurrence and control measurements for Elymus diseases are reported. Domestic research progress is compared with international efforts, and future development ideas for Elymus disease research are also presented. Up to March, 2023, a total of 16 fungal diseases that can infect the leaves, leaf sheaths, stems, spikes, and seeds of Elymus had been recorded worldwide. The more important among these were rust, smut, powdery mildew, ergot, choke and leaf spot diseases. At present, the main control methods for fungal diseases of Elymus are to breed and use resistant varieties, treat seed before sowing, and increase the use of ecological management strategies and chemical controls in the field. In addition, screening or breeding new varieties of Elymus species which carry Epichlo? endophytes is expected to be one of the breakthroughs in the research into Elymus disease resistance.

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    Effects of co-sowing of Artemisia wellbyi and perennial grasses on the characteristics of vegetation and soil fungal communities in desertified grasslands in Tibet
    Huan LIU, Kai DONG, Zeng-wangdui REN, Jing-long WANG, Yun-fei LIU, Gui-qin ZHAO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (6): 45-57.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022356
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    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal proportion of plant species when using mixed-sowing for restoration of desertified grasslands on the Tibetan plateau and for improving the ecological effects of vegetation and soil during restoration. Artificial restoration experimental plots were established in the sandy grasslands of Tibet for this study. Seeds of the native Tibetan species Artemisia wellbyi and the perennial grass species Elymus nutans and Agropyron trachycaulhum were mixed at different proportions [AG1 (4∶1∶2), AG2 (4∶2∶1) and AG3 (5∶1∶1)] and sown at the experimental plots. The controls were unrestored sandy bare ground as the desertified control (CK) and natural grassland (NG) under in situ conditions. Three years after establishing these plots, the vegetation biomass and soil physical and chemical indexes were determined, and ITS sequencing technology and FUNGuild function prediction methods were used to characterize the community structure and functions of soil fungi. The main findings can be summarized as follows: 1) Compared with the control (unrestored sandy land), the restoration treatments increased the above-ground plant biomass (AGB) and below-ground biomass (BGB) by more than three times, and significantly increased soil water content (WC), and the contents of organic matter (OM), alkali-hydrolyzale nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) in soil (P<0.05). 2) The soil fungal community structure and diversity varied among the three replanting treatments. The AG3 treatment had the highest soil fungal diversity and its fungal community structure was most similar to that of natural grassland. 3) There were significant differences in the abundance of Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota in soil between the restoration treatments and natural grassland (P<0.05). The results of a redundancy analysis showed that BGB, AN, AP and pH were the main environmental factors affecting the horizontal community structure of the soil fungal phyla. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota was positively correlated with BGB and pH, and the relative abundance of Mortierellomycota was positively correlated with BGB, AN, and AP. 4) Based on FUNGuild functional predictions, three trophic functional groups (saprophytic, pathogenic, and symbiotic fungi) and five cross-trophic functional groups were detected in all soil samples. Pathogenic, saprophytic, pathogenic-saprophytic, pathogenic-saprophytic, and symbiotic trophic types were dominant. These results show that replanting with A. wellbyi and the perennial grasses E. nutans and A. trachycaulhum can increase plant biomass and restore desertified soil. Under these conditions, the restoration treatment with the best effect on soil nutrients and fungal abundance was sowing with a 5∶1∶1 mixture of A. wellbyi, E. nutans, and A. trachycaulhum seeds.

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    An analysis of grassland spatial distribution and driving forces of patterns of change in grassland distribution in Guizhou Province from 1980 to 2020
    Wan-yang YU, Yi-fan CHEN, Fa-yong FANG, Jin-xin ZHANG, Zhou LI, Long-shan ZHAO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (1): 1-18.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023185
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    Grassland plays an important role in controlling rocky desertification and supporting animal husbandry in karst areas. Information about grassland spatial distribution patterns and driving forces of change in grassland patterns in karst areas is important for planning maintenance of regional grassland ecological functions and achieving sustainable development. Based on land-use datasets, in this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns and changes of grassland distribution in Guizhou Province from 1980 to 2020. Combined the landscape pattern and spatial autocorrelation to deeply identified the evolution law of grassland spatial distribution patterns and effective management areas. And quantified the driving forces of the spatial distribution patterns evolution of grassland by using geographic detector. It was found that: 1)In the past 40 years, the change of grassland area in Guizhou Province can be divided into three stages: a growth period (1980-2000), a decline period (2000-2015) and a recovery period (2015-2020), with an overall decrease from 1980 to 2020 of 176.88 km2. The areas that have undergone changes mainly occurred in the western and southern regions of Guizhou Province, with the main changes being transfer between grassland, forest, and cultivated land. The overall spatial occurrence of grassland could be summarized as “high in the west and south, low in the east and north”. 2)Over time from 1980 to 2020, the degree of fragmentation of grassland increased, the degree of aggregation decreased, and the shape tended to become complex. Grassland patches at the county level are more fragmented and scattered, but their shapes are more regular, than at provincial level. 3)The Anselin Local Moran’s I tool was used to assess the uniformity of aggregation. Using this analytical approach, the spatial clustering patterns of high-high aggregation and low-high aggregation, concentrated in the western and southern regions, were detected. 4)The spatial distribution pattern of grassland was affected mainly by natural factors, among which elevation was the dominant factor, explaining up to 42.9% of data variation for grassland spatial distribution. The power of elevation to explain grassland spatial distribution pattern was enhanced by considering other factors as statistically interacting with elevation, in particular livestock industry output, mean annual temperature, density of population and GDP. Under the overall distribution pattern of grassland dominated by elevation, the differences and changes in social and economic factors between regions significantly affected the evolution of grassland spatial distribution patterns, and regional policies also played an important guiding role.

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    An evaluation of the pathogenicity of Fusarium solani and disease resistance of alfalfa varieties
    Bo CHEN, Yi-fan NIU, Xiao-yu LIU, Su-han ZHANG, Jun-peng NIU, Zhi-peng GUO, Chao-qi LIU, Yong-peng GUO, Yu-xia GUO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 115-128.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022447
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    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of a range of Fusarium solani isolates to various alfalfa varieties on two culture media, potato dextrose agar (PDA) and water agar (WA) medium. We used conventional tissue separation methods to isolate and purify the fungi from alfalfa roots, and the representative strains of the isolates were identified using both morphological and molecular techniques. We estimated the relative root length, relative seedling length, relative root to seedling ratio, relative germination rate and disease index at 14 d after inoculation with F. solani, and synthesized various indexes through membership functions. The results showed that F. solani was the pathogenic fungus causing alfalfa root rot. F. solani was pathogenic to 22 alfalfa varieties on both culture media, and the pathogenicity of F. solani on PDA medium was stronger than that on WA medium. The disease resistance of the 22 alfalfa varieties varied. ‘TARIMU 5S’ showed the strongest resistance, while ‘Zhongmu No.1’, ‘Bara310SC’, ‘OPTIMUS F3’ and ‘Golden-queen’ exhibited high-level resistance. ‘Zhonglan No.2’, ‘Sardi 7’, ‘Longmu 803’ and ‘Gannong No.3’ exhibited low-level resistance; ‘Paola’ had the weakest resistance.

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    Advances in research on the interactions among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobia, and plants
    Hai-xia DUAN, Qian SHI, Sheng-ping KANG, Hai-qing GOU, Chong-liang LUO, You-cai XIONG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (5): 166-182.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023225
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    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobia play crucial roles in plant productivity, microbial community structure, and soil quality. As such, they are key organisms for achieving sustainable ecosystem development. Over time, a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship develops between AMF and rhizobia, and this relationship is essential for effective biological nitrogen fixation and nutrient absorption. Such effective symbioses reduce reliance on chemical fertilizers, thereby facilitating sustainable agricultural practices. However, studies have shown that various environmental factors can hinder the formation of symbiotic relationships between AMF and rhizobia. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically explore the mechanism of the AMF-rhizobia interaction and the factors that affect it. On the basis of a literature review and qualitative comparative analysis, we described the process and mechanism by which plant roots released exudates to stimulate rhizobia and AMF to produce nodulation factors and mycorrhizal factors, thereby activating signaling pathways involved in the establishment of symbiotic relationships between rhizobia-AMF and plants. This review summarized the results of research on the synergism and interaction between AMF-rhizobia and plants, and the biological and abiotic factors affecting the AMF-rhizobia symbiosis and interactions. We highlighted the current gaps in knowledge related to the mechanisms of the symbiotic relationships among AMF, rhizobia, and plants, and discussed the reasons for the slow development of microbial fertilizers. Finally, we discussed future research directions at the theoretical, technical, and application levels. Further research will provide novel ideas and methods for using AMF and rhizobia to promote sustainable agricultural development.

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    Species selection for no-tillage reseeding in grassland restoration based on plant-soil feedback
    Mei-qi GUO, Lin LIU, Jing-ying JING, Gao-wen YANG, Ying-jun ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (12): 14-23.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023041
    Abstract163)   HTML21)    PDF (1512KB)(219)       Save

    As the proportion of more nutritious forage species with good palatability in grassland is reduced or such species become absent due to grassland degradation, reseeding improved forages is an effective way to rapidly restore degraded grasslands. The selection of reseeding species is the primary factor affecting the success of reseeding. In this study, a method for selecting species for no-till reseeding restoration of degraded grassland was tested, using a typical grassland in Inner Mongolia with different degrees of degradation as the experiment site. Soil from degraded grassland patches was also retrieved for a growth test of potential species for reseeding, then the total biomass (Tb) and response to soil factors of each species were measured. Species were then selected for reseeding based on plant-soil feedback (PSF) and Tb, with preference given to species with positive or neutral feedback to the reseeded species and with non-significant differences in Tb between grassland plant patches. It was found that: Lightly degraded grassland with Leymus chinensis as the dominant species was best reseeded with Medicago falcata and Bromus inermis, lightly to moderately degraded grassland with Stipa capillata as the dominant species was best reseeded with L. chinensis, moderately degraded grasslands with Artemisia frigida as the dominant species were best reseeded with Lespedeza bicolor, and heavily degraded grasslands with Potentilla acaulis as the dominant species were best reseeded with Agropyron cristatum, which is not sensitive to changes in soil properties. This study is the first to establish a universal method for selecting species for replanting degraded grasslands, providing theoretical support for no-till reseeding restoration techniques for degraded grasslands both in China, and abroad.

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    Effect of the metabolites in rhizosphere soil on microbial communities of crop intercropping system
    Dai-xiang XU, Jian-feng YANG, Hang SU, Jian-rong ZHAI, Cai QI, Long-gang ZHAO, Yan-jun GUO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (11): 65-80.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023005
    Abstract231)   HTML24)    PDF (4788KB)(218)       Save

    In order to explore the reasons why interspecific interactions affects crop yield, we comprehensively analyzed the crop yield, the soil physicochemical properties, the rhizosphere soil microbial communities and the root exudates in maize (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)-soybean intercropping systems in different years, combining the Eco-Biolog microplate method and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Crop yield was significantly increased in the intercropping systems, and the increase of yield in 2020 was more significant than it in 2019. Compared with monoculture, intercropping increased the accumulation and absorption of available nutrients. The contents of available nutrients in the crop rhizosphere soil of the intercropping system were significantly increased. Compared with monoculture, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen contents in maize, sorghum and soybean in intercropping systems were increased significantly; microorganism activities were also higher, and microbial community composition was more diverse in the rhizosphere soil of intercropped crops. Based on the metabolomic analysis, five key differential metabolites that might cause changes in microbial communities in maize rhizosphere soil were tentatively identified. Four of these appear to enrich the microorganism populations in maize rhizosphere soil, and one appears to be inhibitory. Three metabolites in sorghum rhizosphere soil were identified, two of which appear to enrich presence of microorganisms in sorghum rhizosphere soil, while the third appears to be inhibitory. Two bioactive metabolites in soybean rhizosphere soil were identified, one apparently faciliatory and one inhibitory towards microorganisms. Multivariate analysis showed that maize-soybean and sorghum-soybean intercropping systems changed the soil micro-environment and reshaped the soil microbial community structure through interspecific root interactions in rhizosphere soil, which accelerated the deposition of available nutrients, promoted the absorption of crop nutrients, and ultimately increased crop yield.

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    Screening and identification of two strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria from the silage maize rhizosphere and their roles in plant growth promotion
    Chao-nan MENG, Yu-jie ZHAO, Jia-xin CHEN, Yi-lu ZHANG, Yan-jia WANG, Li-rong FENG, Yu-gang SUN, Chang-hong GUO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (3): 174-185.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023151
    Abstract128)   HTML14)    PDF (2128KB)(213)       Save

    The aim of this study was to screen for high-quality nitrogen-fixing bacteria and evaluate their growth-promoting effects on silage maize (Zea mays). The dilution spread plate method with Ashby solid medium was used to screen and screen ten strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of silage maize. The nitrogen-fixation capabilities of the strains were analyzed. The results indicated that cultures of ZL-2 and ZL-13 exhibited strong nitrogen-fixing abilities (1.07 and 0.95 μg·mL-1, respectively). On the basis of their morphological characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence, and physiological and biochemical characteristics, ZL-2 was identified as Enterobacter cancerogenus, and ZL-13 was identified as Pantoea agglomerans. The growth-promoting characteristics of these two strains were analyzed, and both bacteria were found to secrete ammonium and siderophores, solubilize phosphate, and synthesize indole-3-acetic acid. In a pot experiment, compared with uninoculated silage maize plants, those inoculated with the nitrogen-fixing strains ZL-2 and ZL-13 showed significantly increased plant height, root length, aboveground and underground dry weights, and fresh weight (P<0.05). In a field experiment, compared with uninoculated silage maize plants, those inoculated with one or both of the nitrogen-fixing strains showed significantly increased plant height, stem diameter, yield, crude protein content, and total phosphorus content (P<0.05). Silage maize plants inoculated with these two nitrogen-fixing strains showed significantly increased expression levels of genes related to nitrogen metabolism and ammonia assimilation (ZmAMT-4ZmAMTBZmGOGAT2, and ZmGS1-3) (P<0.05). Therefore, these two nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains have favorable growth-promoting characteristics. Given their important role in enhancing the yield and quality of silage maize, they are valuable resources for the development of microbial agents.

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    Effects of different salt stresses on triticale seed germination
    Chen MENG, Xue-li LU, Ju-ying WANG, Yun-chong WEI, Cheng-sheng ZHANG, Yi-qiang LI, Zong-chang XU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (12): 171-180.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023068
    Abstract148)   HTML15)    PDF (1012KB)(211)       Save

    Soil salinization is an important factor that restricts agricultural production. Triticale has high yields and shows strong stress resistance, so it has the potential to improve saline-alkali land. In this study, triticale seeds were treated with five kinds of salts (NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, MgSO4, NaHCO3) at different concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mmol·L-1) and compound salt solutions (NaHCO3∶NaCl∶Na2SO4=1∶15∶84) at concentrations of 0.05%, 0.15%, 0.30%, 0.60% and 1.20% (w/v). The germination rate, germination potential, germination index, vigor index, seedling length, and root length of triticale germinating seeds and seedlings under different salt stresses were analyzed. The salt tolerance of triticale under different salt stresses was comprehensively evaluated by a principal component analysis and membership function analysis. The results show that the germination rate, germination potential, germination index, and vigor index of triticale seeds decreased gradually as the concentration of each salt increased, and treatment with high concentrations of salts significantly inhibited the germination of the triticale seeds. The seedling length and root length of triticale seedlings also showed a decreasing trend with increasing salt concentrations. Among the salts, NaHCO3 had the strongest inhibitory effect. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the main indicators for evaluating the salt tolerance of triticale were germination rate, germination index, and root length. The ranking of membership function values showed that triticale had relatively high tolerance to mixed salt treatments and the lowest tolerance to NaHCO3.

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    Spatial distribution of the Leymus chinensis population under different grazing intensities in a typical steppe area
    Jin-rui WU, Meng-zhen LI, Yong YANG, Ai-jun LIU, Pu-chang WANG, Hasibagen, Shi-jie LYU, Xiang-jun YUN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (12): 68-76.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023067
    Abstract115)   HTML10)    PDF (2143KB)(209)       Save

    The aim of this study was to explore the spatial distribution characteristics and trends in the growth of Leymus chinensis under different grazing intensities in a typical steppe area. The L. chinensis population at the Typical Steppe Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences was subjected to grazing at four intensities: No grazing as the control (CK), light grazing (LG), moderate grazing (MG) and heavy grazing (HG). The data were analyzed using box plot and multifractal methods. The results showed that the spatial distribution of the L. chinensis population under different grazing intensities had multifractal characteristics. The spatial distribution of the L. chinensis population was complex and non-homogenous in the MG and HG treatments, but relatively uniform in CK and the LG treatment. As the grazing intensity increased, the spatial distribution of the L. chinensis population changed from uniform to aggregated, the niche breadth remained comparatively consistent, and the competition intensity among individuals decreased. Regardless of the differences in grazing intensity, the spatial distribution characteristics of the L. chinensis population in this typical steppe area were dominated by large probability subsets, and L. chinensis still occupied a dominant position in the community.

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    Evaluation of resistance to Colletotrichum cereale and analysis of loss in a field of fifteen imported oat cultivars
    Yong-hong SHI, Peng GAO, Zhi-hong FANG, Xiang ZHAO, Wei HAN, Jiang-ming WEI, Lin LIU, Jin-zhen LI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (9): 130-142.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022424
    Abstract144)   HTML7)    PDF (2097KB)(207)       Save

    Oat (Avena sativa) varieties of high quality and high yield are introduced from other countries and such imports are important to the development of forage-based livestock husbandry in China. However, anthracnose diseased caused by Collectotrichum cereale outbreaks in commercial oat crops is a significant problem with imported varieties. In this study, a total of 15 imported oat varieties were screened for high resistance to anthracnose disease. Simultaneously, we examined the oat yield reduction and quality loss caused by anthracnose. Four resistant varieties were identified: Titan, Everleaf, Souris and Monte. All other varieties were found to be susceptible to anthracnose. The leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, ear dry weight and plant height of the diseased plant of the highly susceptible “Kona” feed oat showed a linear downward trend in proportion to the degree of disease incidence. The forage yield reduction was 7.5%-28.1%, and the regression equation between the yield reduction and mean disease index score was y=0.3023x+1.6822 (R2=0.9837, P<0.05). In this equation, y represents the forage yield reduction of mean disease index score (x) of units. The contents of crude protein, total amino acid, crude ash and phosphorus of moderately and severely diseased plants were significantly (P<0.05) lower than those of healthy plants by 7.2%, 26.5%, 9.0% and 12.8% and by 11.1%, 44.5%, 16.0% and 20.8% respectively. The content of acid detergent fiber in moderately diseased plants increased significantly (P<0.05) by 6.4% compared with healthy plants. The content of neutral and acid detergent fiber in severely diseased plants increased significantly (P<0.05) 11.9% and 10.0% compared with healthy plants, respectively. The reduction in feeding value was 3.2%-15.9%, and the regression equation between the reduction in feeding value and the mean disease index was y=0.1812x+0.5032 (R2=0.9963, P<0.05). In this equation, y represents the forage yield reduction of mean disease index score (x) of units. Hence, the resistant varieties Titan, Everleaf, Souris and Monte are recommended for planting in areas with serious anthracnose. In addition timely and scientifically effective control measures should be implemented. The next step is to screen for superior germplasm with strong disease resistance among local varieties used in China.

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    Functional identification of iron transport of LcZIP1 in Leymus chinensis
    Yan KANG, Yao-hui WANG, Tian-hui NIU, Zhe TENG, Zhi QI, Jia YANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (9): 173-180.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022402
    Abstract103)   HTML2)    PDF (3426KB)(206)       Save

    Leymus chinensis is an important native forage grass, which is widely distributed in the Inner Mongolian steppe grasslands of China. However, the molecular mechanism of mineral uptake in L. chinensis is not yet well understood, although it is known from systematic study in many model plants and crops that zinc-regulated transporter/iron-regulated transporter-like proteins (ZIP transporters) are involved in the uptake and allocation of essential trace elements and heavy metal ions. In this study we found that the Lc206852 gene screened from the L. chinensis transcriptome database was homologous with Zn2+ transporter AtZIP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transmembrane domain analysis using TMHMM Server v. 2.0 indicated that Lc206852, referred to hereafter as LcZIP1, had 9 transmembrane domains, which were closely related to ZIP proteins of plants of the genus Brachypodium. Expression of LcZIP1-GFP in leaf epidermal cells of tobacco and leaf protoplasts of L. chinensis showed that LcZIP1 resided in the endoplasmic reticulum. Real time PCR analysis found that LcZIP1 was responsive to zinc and iron nutrition, and that excess Zn or Fe andFe deficiency induced LcZIP1 expression in roots at transcription level. The yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) complementation test showed that expression of LcZIP1 stimulated growth of the ‘iron uptake-deficient’ yeast mutant ?fet3/?fet4 under Fe deficient conditions. Functional characterization of LcZIP1 will provide an opportunity for crop improvement by mineral nutrition enhancement in the future.

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    Effects of mixed litter with different degrees of decomposition on the decomposition characteristics of semi-arid grassland in northern Shanxi
    Wen-jie LU, Jin-yun QI, Cong WU, Ya-hong JING
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (12): 47-57.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023082
    Abstract78)   HTML9)    PDF (2984KB)(206)       Save

    Plant residues that are decomposed to varying degrees are widely distributed in the litter layer of semi-arid grassland. In this study, a field litter bag experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the degree of decomposition of litter at burial on the overall decomposition process. Decomposition trajectories of fresh and aged litter samples and samples made up of a mixture of fresh and aged litter from three native plant species (Stipa bungeanaArtemisia argyi, and Artemisia gmelinii) that grow in semi-arid grassland of northern Shanxi were measured. The treatments were fresh litter (LFresh), aged litter (LAged), and an equal-ratio mixture of fresh and aged litter (LMix). It was found that the mass remaining percentage of mixed litter with different degrees of decomposition decreased with the increase of decomposition time. It exhibited highest interaction when the plant litter decomposed after 335 days. The observed values of the mass remaining percentage in the S. bungeana LMix treatment and the A. gmelinii LMix treatment were 5.12% and 4.68% lower than the expected values, respectively, showing a synergistic effect, while the A. argyi LMix treatment showed an additive effect. In addition, the S. bungeana LMix treatment promoted nitrogen release and inhibited cellulose decomposition. The A. gmelinii LMix treatment promoted carbon release and lignin decomposition. In conclusion, a mixed litter comprising both fresh and aged material with different degrees of decomposition changed the decomposition rate and promoted nutrient release, thus affecting nutrient cycling in the studied grassland ecosystem.

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    Identification and analysis of alfalfa virus disease based on sRNA deep sequencing technology
    Jiang DU, Zhen-nan MA, Chen-yan WANG, Li ZHANG, De-fu WANG, Yan-bing NIU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (12): 115-125.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023053
    Abstract110)   HTML24)    PDF (3068KB)(202)       Save

    Medicago sativa is an important forage, but the infection with alfalfa virus disease seriously affects the yield and nutritional quality of alfalfa. In this study, the virus pathogens of alfalfa samples, which exhibited mosaic, wrinkled, and curled leaves, collected from Botanical Garden of Shanxi Agricultural University were identified by small RNA deep sequencing technology and RT-PCR/PCR methods. It was found that the diseased leaf samples were co-infected by alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), pea streak virus (PeSV), alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV) and alfalfa leaf curl virus (ALCV). The whole genome sequence of ALCV isolate SXTG (OP748371) was obtained by PCR amplification. Sequence analysis showed that the complete sequence of ALCV isolate SXTG shared the highest similarity with the ALCV isolate Colonia Dora (MG792026), namely 97.34%. Sequence alignment analysis of the AMV CP gene (OP748369) nucleoside sequence and its encoded amino acid sequences showed that the AMV isolate SX had the highest similarity with the AMV isolate ACat (MW835977), with nucleotide and amino acid similarities of 99.24% and 99.54%, respectively. Similarly, the amplified ADV CP gene sequence was uploaded to GenBank, the registration number OP957285 was obtained and the isolate was named ADV Shanxi Taigu alfalfa isolate (SXJZ). Sequence analysis showed that the isolate SXJZ had the closest genetic relationship with ADV isolate N1 (MZ221810), with an amino acid sequence similarity of 99.43%. Further sequence alignment analysis of the amino acid (OQ108501) encoded by PeSV CP gene showed that the similarity of the amino acid encoded by the coat protein of the Shanxi alfalfa isolate (SXJZ) and other PeSV isolates was 100%. This is the first time that the compound infection of ALCV, ADV, AMV and PeSV has been detected in alfalfa plants in Shanxi Province. These results will help to understand the molecular evolution of the virus disease infecting alfalfa and provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of the virus disease.

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    Correlation between vegetation biomass and soil fractal characteristics and soil moisture at different elevations in the Helan Mountains
    Ye-yun HUANG, Kai-yang QIU, Ya-chao ZHU, Ying-zhong XIE, Wang-suo LIU, Yi YANG, Si-yao WANG, Lu-yao CUI, Ping-an BAO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (12): 24-35.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023050
    Abstract150)   HTML17)    PDF (3953KB)(201)       Save

    This research investigated the vertical variation of vegetation biomass, soil fractal characteristics and soil moisture content in arid and semi-arid mountain ecosystems, and investigated the correlation between vegetation biomass, fractal characteristics and soil moisture, in typical vegetation zones at different elevations in the Helan Mountains. Vegetation biomass, soil fractal characteristics and soil moisture content and the vertical variability of these parameters were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation analysis. It was found that: 1) The herb biomass and shrub biomass did not show a linear trend with elevation; The maximum value for shrub vegetation biomass occurred at a shallow mountain scrub sampling site designated QSGC and the maximum value for herbaceous vegetation biomass occurred at a subalpine scrub sampling site designated YGSGC, with better vegetation conditions and higher vegetation productivity. 2) The soils in Helan Mountains were comprised mainly of powder-sized and very fine sand particles, and the soil texture became finer as the elevation increased. 3) Soil moisture content increased significantly with elevation, but was slightly lower at a sampling site designated QHYS and characterized by presence of Qinghai spruce. 4) Correlation analysis showed that annual precipitation and soil clay content were the factors most strongly associated with vegetation biomass. Overall, vegetation biomass, soil fractal characteristics, and soil moisture content in the vegetated Helan Mountains were found to be affected by the combined effects and influences of several environmental factors, showing obvious spatial heterogeneity. This study provides important information about the spatial variation patterns of vegetation biomass in Helan Mountains and apparent causative factors. Such information will assist planning of the restoration of degraded vegetation in the Helan Mountains and will provide reference data for planning the rational use of vegetation and soil resources in the Helan Mountain ecosystem.

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    Responses of different oat cultivars to low-nitrogen stress
    Ying LUO, Cong LI, Pei WANG, Li-hua TIAN, Hui WANG, Qing-ping ZHOU, Ying-xia LEI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (2): 164-184.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023105
    Abstract101)   HTML7)    PDF (4503KB)(191)       Save

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of oat (Avena sativa) to low-nitrogen stress, and to screen for A.sativa cultivars that are tolerant to low-nitrogen conditions. Eighteen A. sativa cultivars were grown using a hydroponic system with two different nitrogen concentrations: sufficient nitrogen (4 mmol·L-1, CK) and low nitrogen (0.4 mmol·L-1, LN). After 21 days of treatment, seven morphological indexes and 14 physiological indexes were measured and analyzed. The data were subjected to correlation analysis and principal component analysis, and a comprehensive evaluation was carried out by combining a cluster analysis and a membership function analysis. The results showed that: 1) Under low-nitrogen stress, the plant height, aboveground biomass, nitrate nitrogen content, nitrate reductase activity, glutamine synthase activity, glutamate dehydrogenase activity, soluble sugars content, and soluble protein content showed a decreasing trend; glutamate synthase activity, malondialdehyde content, and reactive oxygen species content showed an increasing trend; and the changes in root length, underground biomass, and root-shoot ratio varied. 2) Among the 21 physiological indicators, 12 pairs showed significant correlations. Among these 12, the root:shoot ratio and root dry weight were significantly positively correlated, and glutamine synthetase activity and soluble protein content were significantly negatively correlated. 3) Biomass, nitrogen metabolism factors, photosynthetic factors, antioxidant factors, and osmotic regulatory factors of A. sativa under low-nitrogen stress were identified as important indicators of tolerance to low-nitrogen conditions. 4) The 18 cultivars of A. sativa were divided into three categories: strongly tolerant, moderately tolerant, and sensitive. The strongly tolerant varieties included Qinghai sweet oat and Qinghai 444. The sensitive varieties included Haywire and Qingyan No. 2.

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    Effects of exogenous melatonin on root development and physiological and biochemical characteristics of maize seedlings under drought stress
    Ying JIANG, Hui-hong ZHANG, Chang WEI, Zheng-yang XU, Ying ZHAO, Fang LIU, Ge-zi LI, Xue-hai ZHANG, Hai-tao LIU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (9): 143-159.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022480
    Abstract194)   HTML18)    PDF (7533KB)(190)       Save

    This research studied the effect of spraying exogenous melatonin on drought resistance of maize seedlings, and explored the mechanism of melatonin alleviation of drought stress in maize variety Zhengdan 985. A hydroponic experiment was conducted, using polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) to simulate drought stress. The effects of melatonin at different concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100 μmol·L-1; MT0, MT10, MT50, MT100, respectively) on the growth, root configuration and diameter characteristics, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant capacity and osmotic content of maize seedlings under drought stress were studied. Multivariate analysis of the maize seedling drought resistance under the various treatments was undertaken using the subordinate function value method. Compared with the treatment without melatonin, spraying 50 μmol·L-1 melatonin had the best effect, and significantly increased plant height, aboveground fresh and dry weight, underground fresh and dry weight, stem tolerance index and root tolerance index of the seedlings. The total root length (RL), root surface area (SA), root volume (RV) and root tip number (RT) of maize seedlings were also increased significantly by melatonin application. The RL of the finest diameter category (0-0.5 mm) and the SA and RV of the second diameter category (0.5-1.0 mm), were also significantly increased. Across the treatments, the proportions of total RL and SA (82.40% and 47.32%, respectively) in the (0-0.5 mm) diameter range were highest in the 50 μmol·L-1 melatonin treatment. In this treatment, compared to the control, shoot malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased by 20.17% (P<0.05), shoot soluble protein content was maximized, the soluble protein content of underground parts was increased by 49.14%, and leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs) were increased by 85.83% and 32.81%, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in shoots and underground organs were also significantly increased. The order of drought resistance of the four treatments under drought stress was MT50>MT10>MT100>MT0. Exogenous application of 50 μmol·L-1 melatonin effectively regulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes and osmotic regulation in the aboveground and underground parts of maize seedlings, reduced the MDA content, increased the photosynthetic capacity, and beneficially regulated the soluble protein content, ascorbate (AsA) content, glutathione (GSH) content, SOD activity, POD activity, APX activity and CAT activity in the aboveground and underground parts of maize seedlings. The biomass and elongation of maize seedlings were increased, the detrimental effect of drought stress on root configuration was reduced, and the drought resistance of maize seedlings was improved. These results provide a theoretical basis for revealing the mechanism of melatonin alleviation of drought stress.

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