Welcome to Acta Prataculturae Sinica ! Today is Share:

Most Download articles

    Published in last 1 year | In last 2 years| In last 3 years| All| Most Downloaded in Recent Month| Most Downloaded in Recent Year|

    Most Downloaded in Recent Month
    Please wait a minute...
    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    Progress of research on hormone regulation of branching or tillering in plants
    Fen-qi CHEN, Jin-qing ZHANG, Hui-ling MA
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (2): 212-225.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023118
    Abstract259)   HTML19)    PDF (1243KB)(527)       Save

    Branching (or tillering in grasses and related taxa) is an important trait of plant architecture and the result of axillary bud initiation and growth, which plays a crucial role in determining the seed yield of crops and forage yield. Multiple hormones and their interactions play key regulatory roles in the occurrence, growth and development of plant branching or tillering. In addition, environmental factors also regulate branching or tillering by changing the hormone contents and their balances within the plant. This study reviews multiple aspects of the mechanisms by which plant branching or tillering is regulated various hormones, including auxin, cytokinin, strigolactones, brassinosteroids, abscisic acid and gibberellins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and complex regulatory networks formed by the interaction of different hormone signals. The aim is to establish a foundation for using hormone regulation mechanisms to cultivate new high-yielding crop plant growth forms with ideal plant architecture. The current issues with hormone regulation mechanisms controlling plant branching or tillering are also analyzed, and future research directions for hormone regulation mechanisms controlling plant branching or tillering are discussed, with the aim of providing a theoretical basis for using hormones to cultivate good varieties.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Screening and identification of two potassium solubilizer strains and their effects on the yield and quality of alfalfa
    Yan-jia WANG, Bo-ang HU, Jia-xin CHEN, Li-ting XU, Lin YAO, Li-rong FENG, Chang-hong GUO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (12): 139-149.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023036
    Abstract150)   HTML11)    PDF (2822KB)(683)       Save

    The study aimed to isolate and screen high-efficiency potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB), and to quantify the effects of KSB application on plant yield and quality. The KSB strains were screened by silicate bacteria media from the rhizosphere soil of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and subsequently the strains were identified by morphological, 16S rDNA sequence, and physiological and biochemical analysis. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation with KSB strains on the yield and quality of alfalfa. Two high-efficiency KSB strains XLT-4 and XLT-7 were obtained with potassium solubilization rates of 10.53% and 9.75%>CK, and identified as Priestia megaterium and Peribacillus frigoritolerans, respectively. These two KSB strains had the metabolic capacity for phosphorus solubilization, siderophore-production and indole acetic acid secretion. Inoculation with XLT-4 and XLT-7 significantly increased plant height, root length, dry and fresh weight above ground and below ground, root activity, the contents of P, K and crude protein in leaves, while the contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were significantly lower than in CK plants. In addition, the inoculation of the two KSB also improved the enzyme activity and available potassium content in alfalfa rhizosphere soil. In this study, the two KSB strains made a major contribution to improving the yield and quality of alfalfa, and these two organisms are high quality strain resources for the development of microbial preparations.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Comparison of vegetative propagation characteristics of modules between Leymus chinensis and Carex duriuscula clonal populations in a restoration succession series in northeast degraded grassland
    Li-li LIU, Yue-lin WANG, Hai-yan LI, Ji FENG, Li-shuang CHU, Yun-fei YANG, Li-shi LAN, Jian GUO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (7): 15-24.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023299
    Abstract56)   HTML14)    PDF (1595KB)(142)       Save

    Populations of clonal herbaceous plants mainly regenerate by vegetative propagation. The age structure of modules of rhizomatous herbaceous plants generated by vegetative propagation is an important factor in population status analysis, and in the prediction of vegetation and restoration succession dynamics. In this study, we analyzed and compared the age structures of tillers and rhizomes, the productivity of tillers, the storage capacity of rhizomes, and the vegetative propagation capacity of both tillers and rhizomes at different ages between two major clonal herbaceous species, Leymus chinensis and Carex duriuscula, at five stages of restoration in the succession of degraded grassland in northeast China. The tillers of L. chinensis and C. duriuscula showed an expanding age structure, and the rhizomes exhibited a stable or expanding age structure at each stage of restoration succession. The tiller productivity and rhizome storage capacity of L. chinensis were greater than those of C. duriuscula at different stages of restoration succession. With the process of grassland restoration succession, the storage capacity of rhizomes of L. chinensis in the first age class showed a significant increasing trend, and the productivity of tillers of C. duriuscula in the second age class showed a significant decreasing trend. At the stages of restoration succession when L. chinensis and C. duriuscula coexisted, the vegetative propagation capacity of L. chinensis rhizomes was higher than that of C. duriuscula. Overall, the age structure characteristics of the modules of L. chinensis and C. duriuscula were similar at various stages of restoration succession. However, with the process of grassland restoration succession, the vegetative propagation strategy of the L. chinensis population to enhance the vegetative propagation capacity of young and prime tillers was more conducive to the maintenance and expansion of the population than that of the C. duriuscula population to only increase the vegetative propagation capacity of young tillers. Therefore, L. chinensis gradually replaced C. duriuscula as the dominant species in the community during succession.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Variations in vegetation cover and its relationship with climate change and human activities in Mongolia during the period 1982-2015
    Jia-meng DU, Gang BAO, Si-qin TONG, Xiao-jun HUANG, Wendurina, Meili, Yu-hai BAO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2021, 30 (2): 1-13.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020311
    Abstract913)   HTML76)    PDF (4783KB)(1055)       Save

    Dynamics of vegetation change on different spatial and temporal scales in Mongolia were analysed for the period from 1982 to 2015, based on GIMMS NDVI3g data (global inventory monitoring and modeling system normalized difference vegetation index-3rd generation), climate data, and data on vegetation type from 1982 to 2015. Spatial patterns, trends of change in those patterns, and the main reasons for differences in vegetation type were examined using trend analysis, partial correlation analysis and residual analysis. The average NDVI in Mongolia in the growing season increased gradually from the south to the north across Mongolia over the 34-year period, showed significant latitudinal differences, and decreased as the altitude increased. In the growing season, the NDVI displayed characteristic features in particular time periods, notably a significant increase between 1982 and 1994 and between 2007 and 2015, and a significant decrease between 1994 and 2007. Across the whole of Mongolia, linear regression model indicated an increasing trend in the values of the NDVI during the growing season at the rate of 0.0005 NDVI per year, and changes in the index were closely related to increasing precipitation, with a partial correlation coefficient of 0.74. In the case of spatial distribution, areas with significant increase in vegetation were distributed mainly in the Great Lakes Region in the west, the Hangayn Mountains, the Gobi Altai Mountains, and the northern forest areas. The responses of vegetation to climatic factors varied with the season and the region. On the whole, the NDVI increased in three seasons, and the fluctuation in the NDVI in summer was consistent with that in the growth season, and the fluctuation in the NDVI in summer was consistent with that in the growth season, which was controlled mainly by precipitation, because summer contributes the most to annual productivity. The effect of temperature on the NDVI was marked in spring and autumn. Residual analysis showed that human activities has a major impact on changes in the NDVI, especially in areas with high population density (western alpine areas and central grassland areas of Mongolia), the decline in the NDVI is obviously caused by human activities.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research progress on plant coumarin biosynthesis pathway and the genes encoding the key enzymes
    Zhen DUAN, Fan WU, Qi YAN, Ji-yu ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (1): 217-228.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020485
    Abstract1678)   HTML101)    PDF (967KB)(1214)       Save

    Coumarins, the important secondary metabolites of plants, derive from phenylpropanoids metabolism pathway, have a variety of biological activities and play an important role in plant growth and development and stress response. Here, the research progress of coumarin biosynthesis pathway and the genes encoding the key enzymes involved in coumarin biosynthesis were reviewed, and the phylogenetic evolution of the UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) gene family were analyzed. Moreover, the current research issues on coumarin biosynthesis were summarized and the future research directions were prospected in order to provide references for studying the coumarin biosynthesis and follow-up research.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Impacts of desertification and artificial revegetation on soil bacterial communities in alpine grassland
    Ya-ni WANG, Yi-gang HU, Zeng-ru WANG, Yi-kang LI, Zhen-hua ZHANG, Hua-kun ZHOU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (5): 26-39.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021120
    Abstract295)   HTML30)    PDF (4934KB)(823)       Save

    Characteristics of the soil microbial communities indicate the health of grasslands and quality of the environment. To elucidate the effects of desertification and artificial revegetation on the respective soil bacterial communities, four alpine grassland types including natural grassland (NG), desertified grassland (DG), grass-based artificial grassland (AG) and shrub-based artificial grassland (AS) in a small watershed of Guinan County, Qinghai Province were selected and qPCR and Illumina MiSeq high-throughput amplicon sequencing technologies were used to study the variation between the communities in bacterial biomass, diversity and structure. We also analyzed the key factors shaping soil bacterial community structure and their contributions based on variations in vegetation and soil properties. It was found that grassland desertification significantly reduced bacterial community biomass and α diversity (P<0.05), but that bacterial community biomass could be almost restored to the level of undegraded grassland after 22 years of artificial revegetation. Desertification significantly increased the relative abundance of Gemmatimonadota, while abundance of Proteobacteria and Planctomycetota significantly decreased (P<0.05). Artificial revegetation promoted the succession of dominant bacteria towards the community structure found in NG, and after 22 years of artificial revegetation, most of the bacterial relative abundances paralleled those of the undegraded status. Dissimilarity in bacterial community structure was noted between NG and DG, AG and AS, community structure in AG and AS were very similar. Soil bacterial community structure significantly positively correlated with the majority of vegetation and soil physiochemical properties (P<0.05). However, compared to soil physical (6.3%) and chemical (1.9%) properties, vegetation properties explained more variation (10.0%) in bacterial community structure. In total, the measured vegetation and soil indices explained 72.0% of variation in soil bacterial community structure, implying that vegetation and soil determine the shifts of soil bacterial community structure. Accordingly, it is essential and meaningful to strengthen vegetation and soil protection, and implement artificial revegetation in desertified grassland for protection and restoration of soil bacterial communities in Tibetan alpine grassland. However, the choice between shrub and grass planting during revegetation made little difference to the superficial soil bacterial community structure in artificial revegetation.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research progress on the physiological response of plants to low temperature and the amelioration effcectiveness of exogenous ABA
    Hong-tao XIANG, Dian-feng ZHENG, Ning HE, Wan LI, Man-li WANG, Shi-ya WANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2021, 30 (1): 208-219.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020091
    Abstract741)   HTML48)    PDF (1223KB)(688)       Save

    Global climate change is producing abnormal, extreme weather and agricultural meteorological disasters linked to climate change now occur frequently. Sudden low temperature stress has become one of the most common abiotic stresses in agricultural production, and low temperature stress more generally has become one of the most common abiotic stresses in agricultural production in recent years. Low temperature stress interferes with plant growth and development, and can directly or indirectly affect physiological functions, cell membrane components and structure of the plant, thus reducing yield and quality, and seriously restricting agricultural production. Application of exogenous ABA at appropriate rates can alleviate the effects of low temperature stress on physicochemical processes. Here we systematically expound the effects of low temperature stress on the physicochemical processes of plants and clarify the mechanisms of plant responses to low temperature stress, including aspects of photosynthetic physiology, stress physiology, cell membrane components and cell structure, hormone levels, and gene expression. Furthermore, the positive effects of exogenous ABA in alleviating low temperature stress are analyzed. This paper discusses the research status and development trends with respect to the use of plant growth regulators for alleviation of low temperature stress. This topic is of great significance for stable production and preservation of agriculture, and also provides a theoretical basis for future research on plant cold resistance.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research progress on effects of nitrogen deposition on soil nitrogen cycling in grassland ecosystems
    Jiao-yun LU, He-shan ZHANG, Hong TIAN, Jun-bo XIONG, Yang LIU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (6): 221-234.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021156
    Abstract536)   HTML40)    PDF (780KB)(442)       Save

    The intensification of human activities and the use of fossil fuels has increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition, which has a significant impact on the nitrogen cycling processes of terrestrial ecosystems, thus affecting ecosystem productivity and stability. Grasslands, are an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, and in many cases are subject to resource loss and nutrient imbalance due to human overuse and lack of awareness of protection needs, in which case the development of animal husbandry enterprises can be severely limited. It is highly relevant to explore the influence of nitrogen deposition on nitrogen cycles of grassland ecosystems for rational development of policy and practice with respect to utilization of grassland resources. This paper tracks published research results at home and abroad and a key finding is that most nitrogen addition inhibits biological nitrogen fixation processes, promotes nitrification, denitrification and mineralization in soils, inhibits the activity of nitrogen fixing microorganisms, and increases the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria of nitrifying microorganisms and expression of functional genes of denitrifying microorganisms, such as nirKnirSnirG and nosZ. However, the responses of the soil nitrogen cycle to nitrogen deposition in a few studies differed from the above due to differences in nitrogen nutrition and nitrogen application measures in a grassland environment. Through summarizing the existing studies, we found that: 1) The effects of nitrogen deposition on the nitrogen cycle differ between studies due to different soil background nutrient levels and nitrogen absorption thresholds; 2) Microorganisms are important participants in the soil nitrogen cycle, and the responses of microorganisms to nitrogen addition differ with different nitrogen application time, frequency and quantity. 3) The various steps of the nitrogen cycle in soils are closely coupled and influence each other, but most of the existing studies only focus on a particular step, and therefore the results do not provide comprehensive insight. Therefore, in future studies, it will be necessary to pay more attention to the study of soil nitrogen cycle microbial changes under particular nitrogen supply conditions in grasslands with different nutrient levels, and consider the multi-step coupling relationship, which is very important to the improvement of grassland ecosystem function and reduction of the threat caused by nitrogen loss from the environment.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the Hsp70 gene family in wheat and its ancestral species
    Yi WU, Ya-lan FENG, Tian-ning WANG, Ji-hao JU, Hui-shu XIAO, Chao MA, Jun ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (7): 53-67.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023334
    Abstract62)   HTML8)    PDF (5694KB)(100)       Save

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) exerts a crucial influence on plant development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to explore the evolutionary relationships, functions and expression patterns of the Hsp70 gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum), this study conducted a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of the Hsp70 gene family in Triticum urartuAegilops speltoidesTriticum turgidumAegilops tauschii and common wheat, and the expression patterns of some Hsp70 genes under different exogenous hormones and environmental stress were analyzed by RT-qPCR. The results showed that, respectively, from the five species, 30, 41, 60, 28 and 94 Hsp70 genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the members of the Hsp70 family in the five species were divided into 5 subfamily groups, and the number of members in each group was not equal. Most of the members are distributed in Group I, and most of the Hsp70 members in the same subfamily have similar gene structures and conserved motifs. Further comprehensive analysis of chromosome localization and repetition events of the Hsp70 gene in the five species revealed that the Hsp70 gene was unevenly distributed on each of the chromosomes, and a total of 12 tandem repeat events and 110 fragment replication events were found from the five species, indicating that fragment replication events promoted the expansion of the Hsp70 gene family in wheat. The analysis of cis-acting elements showed that there were various light response elements, stress response elements, hormone response elements and growth as well as development regulatory elements in the promoter region of Hsp70 gene in the five wheat species. In addition, RT-qPCR results indicated that particular Hsp70 genes in the five wheat species had varying degrees of response under different hormone treatments and stress. The expression of eight Hsp70 genes was up-regulated under high temperature and drought stress. The identification of the Hsp70 gene in wheat and its ancestral species and elucidation of its evolution provides a theoretical basis for further research on the function of the Hsp70 gene in wheat growth and development, as well as its response mechanism under stress.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Advances in research on the interactions among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobia, and plants
    Hai-xia DUAN, Qian SHI, Sheng-ping KANG, Hai-qing GOU, Chong-liang LUO, You-cai XIONG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (5): 166-182.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023225
    Abstract225)   HTML16)    PDF (1282KB)(222)       Save

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobia play crucial roles in plant productivity, microbial community structure, and soil quality. As such, they are key organisms for achieving sustainable ecosystem development. Over time, a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship develops between AMF and rhizobia, and this relationship is essential for effective biological nitrogen fixation and nutrient absorption. Such effective symbioses reduce reliance on chemical fertilizers, thereby facilitating sustainable agricultural practices. However, studies have shown that various environmental factors can hinder the formation of symbiotic relationships between AMF and rhizobia. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically explore the mechanism of the AMF-rhizobia interaction and the factors that affect it. On the basis of a literature review and qualitative comparative analysis, we described the process and mechanism by which plant roots released exudates to stimulate rhizobia and AMF to produce nodulation factors and mycorrhizal factors, thereby activating signaling pathways involved in the establishment of symbiotic relationships between rhizobia-AMF and plants. This review summarized the results of research on the synergism and interaction between AMF-rhizobia and plants, and the biological and abiotic factors affecting the AMF-rhizobia symbiosis and interactions. We highlighted the current gaps in knowledge related to the mechanisms of the symbiotic relationships among AMF, rhizobia, and plants, and discussed the reasons for the slow development of microbial fertilizers. Finally, we discussed future research directions at the theoretical, technical, and application levels. Further research will provide novel ideas and methods for using AMF and rhizobia to promote sustainable agricultural development.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research progress on “desert ginseng”- Cistanche deserticola and Cynomeorium songaricum
    HAO Yuan-yuan, YUE Li-jun, KANG Jian-jun, WANG Suo-min
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2012, 21 (2): 286-293.  
    Abstract255)      PDF (539KB)(1081)       Save
    Cistanche deserticola and Cynomeorium songaricum are parasitic higher-plants distributed in desert regions of China. They are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as famous tonics. Currently, their new pharmacological roles have been developed and corresponding pharmacological components isolated. Exploitation of C. deserticola and C. songaricum requires preliminary industrialization and their products include drug, health foods and food additives. However, wild C. deserticola and C. songaricum have been classed as world endangered species because of frequent human activity and deteriorating environmental conditions in native regions. At present, artificial inoculation methods of C. deserticola and C. songaricum breeding have achieved preliminary success and interrelations between them and their hosts are clearer thus bringing an opportunity for the conservation and sustainable utilization of C. deserticola and C. songaricum. In this review, recent advances on their morphological characteristics, habitat and distribution, economic value, exploitation and utilization, and artificial breeding as well as effects on host plant growth are summarized. The future directions in this field are also discussed.
    Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research progress on remote sensing discrimination techniques for grassland botanical species
    Meng-ge HUANG, Xin-hong WANG, Ling-ling MA, Xue-hua YE, Xiao-hua ZHU, Wei-ping KONG, Ning WANG, Qi WANG, Guang-zhou OUYANG, Qing-chuan ZHENG, Xiao-xin HOU, Ling-li TANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (6): 167-185.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022278
    Abstract294)   HTML21)    PDF (1661KB)(401)       Save

    Grassland is an important resource bank for regional economic development and a crucial ecological reservoir for the security of China’s land-based ecological environment. Remote sensing technology is rapid, efficient, and low-cost, and therefore provides the mainstream technical means for large-scale grassland monitoring. The use of remote sensing technology to discriminate grassland species is an important way to monitor the population dynamics and botanical community succession in grassland. Such information is conducive to the timely and accurate detection of changes in the grassland ecological environment and provides an important reference for the scientific management of grassland ecosystems and the construction of an ecologically aware civilization. This study focuses on the problem of remote sensing discrimination of grassland species, clarifies the technical process of grassland species discrimination and introduces the latest research progress. Technical difficulties are covered from three perspectives: The characteristics of the main remote sensing data sources for grassland species discrimination and their acquisition techniques, important grassland species discrimination features and their mining techniques and the current commonly used grassland species discrimination methods and models. This study concludes that hyperspectral and LiDAR remote sensing and their fusion technologies have application prospects in the remote sensing discrimination of grassland species, and that the deep mining of multidimensional features and the effective combination of complementary features can improve the accuracy of grassland species discrimination. This study identifies the main problems of the current remote sensing discrimination technology for grassland species, and opens the prospect of the future precise discrimination of grassland species through remote sensing technology and thereby provides a theoretical reference for a thorough understanding of the field of remote sensing identification of grassland species and in-depth research on grassland species discrimination.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Vegetation classification of UAV remote sensing images in desert steppe based on object-oriented technology
    Jie SHE, Ai-hong SHEN, Yun SHI, Na ZHAO, Feng-hong ZHANG, Hong-yuan HE, Tao WU, Hong-xia LI, Yi-ting MA, Xiao-wen ZHU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (7): 1-14.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023319
    Abstract77)   HTML23)    PDF (7049KB)(108)       Save

    Exploring suitable remote sensing classification methods for desert grassland vegetation and clarifying the types of plant species and their distribution in desert grassland areas can improve the ability of fine biodiversity monitoring in desert grassland, which is of great significance for the protection and management of desert grassland as well as for the sustainable development of ecosystems within the landscape. This research studied the typical vegetation of Stipa brevifloraConvolvulus tragacanthoidesSalsola laricifoliaEphedra rhytidosperma in the desert grassland of the floodplain fan at the eastern foothill of Helan Mountains. We used remote sensing images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), processed by object-oriented classification and regression tree (CART), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) classification methods, combined with the feature selection algorithm to optimize the image features. We then selected the optimal features for the study of desert grassland vegetation classification, and its refinement. It was found that: 1) Feature selection can effectively improve the classification accuracy and should be fully utilized, and the highest classification accuracy is achieved when the selected feature combination has a contribution degree greater than 1.00%; 2) Based on the vegetation spectral and texture features mined from UAV remote sensing images, combining with the object-oriented classification method can effectively achieve the refined classification of the typical vegetation of the desert grassland at the eastern foothills of the Helan Mountains. In this research the RF classification accuracy was the highest, and the overall classification accuracy reached 87.77% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.79. The results of this study provide a reference for the study of vegetation classification in desert grasslands. This research will be of great significance for the conservation and management of desert grassland biodiversity and ecological sustainable development.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Progress in research on breeding methods to produce new, high-quality forage varieties
    Wen-wen QI, Hong-yuan MA, Ya-xiao LI, Yan DU, Meng-dan SUN, Hai-tao WU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (6): 187-202.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023259
    Abstract94)   HTML7)    PDF (953KB)(123)       Save

    Forage is the best natural feed for herbivorous livestock. Therefore, it the basis and guarantee for the development of the herbivorous animal husbandry industry, and an important food resource as part of an all-encompassing approach to food. The breeding of new forage varieties is essential for the sustainable development of grass and animal husbandry industries. Forage plays important roles in promoting the stable production and supply of animal products. With the increasing demand for new high-quality forage varieties and the improvement of breeding techniques, forage breeding technology has entered the molecular era, and great breakthroughs have been made in the cultivation of new high-quality forage varieties. In this review, we systematically summarize the forage breeding techniques used in China and abroad in the past 100 years, including conventional breeding techniques (domestication breeding, cross breeding, mutation breeding, and ploidy breeding) and genetic engineering breeding techniques (transgenic and molecular design breeding). We also discuss the gene editing methods developed in recent years. We describe the achievements made using various breeding techniques, as well as their problems. We also outline the following prospects for future research: 1) In-depth exploration of natural forage resources and strengthening of the collection and utilization of germplasm resources. 2) Advancing the objectives for the breeding of forage species to meet the demands of farmers and livestock producers, paying attention to the improvement of forage quality, the production of disease-resistant and stress-tolerant varieties, and the development of the “productional-living-ecological” function of forage. 3) Combining conventional and modern breeding methods to move past the bottleneck of forage breeding and strengthen the breeding of high-quality forage species, especially Leymus chinensis and Medicago sativa. The aims of this review are to promote the new era of biological breeding in China and to provide a basis for the innovation of forage germplasm resources and the selection of new, high-quality forage varieties. The overall aims in this field of research are to provide new technologies for the establishment of high-quality and high-productive cultivated grassland, and to meet the growing demand for forage to feed farmed animals in China.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Progress in research on fungal diseases of the genus Elymus
    Long-hai XUE, Jia-qi LIU, Chun-jie LI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (2): 226-241.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023132
    Abstract107)   HTML7)    PDF (918KB)(240)       Save

    Elymus species are widely used as forage grasses on the Tibetan Plateau and widely grown in alpine pasture areas such as Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Tibet and Sichuan Province, China. Disease is one of the important factors limiting the production and utilization of the genus Elymus. In sown grassland, disease will directly affect the yield and quality of forages. In natural grassland, Elymus plants are also an important vector contributing to the spread of many pathogens. This pathogen spread seriously affects the productivity of grassland agricultural ecosystems. Based on a review of published domestic and international literature, the etiology, conditions of occurrence and control measurements for Elymus diseases are reported. Domestic research progress is compared with international efforts, and future development ideas for Elymus disease research are also presented. Up to March, 2023, a total of 16 fungal diseases that can infect the leaves, leaf sheaths, stems, spikes, and seeds of Elymus had been recorded worldwide. The more important among these were rust, smut, powdery mildew, ergot, choke and leaf spot diseases. At present, the main control methods for fungal diseases of Elymus are to breed and use resistant varieties, treat seed before sowing, and increase the use of ecological management strategies and chemical controls in the field. In addition, screening or breeding new varieties of Elymus species which carry Epichlo? endophytes is expected to be one of the breakthroughs in the research into Elymus disease resistance.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (6): 1-10.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20220601
    Abstract655)   HTML66)    PDF (598KB)(640)       Save
    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Promotional effects of nanoparticles on plants
    Yun-hua HAN, Su-juan MI, Xiao-qi SHI, Tian-hang ZHONG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (11): 204-213.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021449
    Abstract291)   HTML8)    PDF (1424KB)(223)       Save

    With global climate change and human population increase, the demand for sustainable development of plant production is more urgent. Nanotechnology is one of the most developed sciences in the 21st century and a promising tool for sustainable agricultural development. In recent years, the applications of nanomaterials for enhancement of plant production have developed rapidly, and potential of this technology in traditional plant production has been proven. In this review, we elucidate the promotional effect of nanomaterials on plant growth and their mechanisms. We discuss developments of nanomaterial research in plant growth, including uptake and transport of nanoparticles, fertilizers and plant growth regulators effects of nano particles, nano enzyme enhancement of stress resistance and nano particle regulation of photosynthesis. Further, the challenges of nanomaterial applications in plant production and research priorities are discussed, emphasizing the need for a systematic approach to the use of nanotechnology in agriculture. We hope this paper will provide new ideas for future research on nanoparticle regulation of plant functions.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The role of MAPK in plant response to abiotic stress
    Xin-miao ZHANG, Guo-qiang WU, Ming WEI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (1): 182-197.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023090
    Abstract465)   HTML35)    PDF (1316KB)(442)       Save

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a highly conserved serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase, occurring widely in eukaryotic intermediate reaction pathways. Plant MAPK has 11 relatively conserved sub-domains, which are all essential elements for Ser/Thr protein kinase to play its catalytic role, and its expression is regulated by reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and hormones. MAPK phosphorylates a variety of substrates including transcription factors, protein kinases and cytoskeleton related proteins, and plays an important role in regulating plant response to abiotic stresses (salt, drought, extreme temperature, and heavy metals). In this review, we summarize the results of research on the discovery of plant MAPK family members, their structure and classification, regulatory mechanisms, and their roles in response to various abiotic stresses. We also propose directions for future research. The information in this review provides a theoretical basis and identifies genetic resources for the genetic improvement of crops to produce new, stress-resistant varieties.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Effect of grazing exclusion on soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents and enzyme activity and stoichiometry in Seriphidium transiliense desertgrasslands
    Si-yuan LI, Zong-jiu SUN, Bing-jie YU, Chen-ye ZHOU, Lei ZHOU, Li ZHENG, Hui-xia LIU, Hua-wei YE
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (7): 25-40.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023310
    Abstract50)   HTML8)    PDF (6988KB)(83)       Save

    It is important to determine the changes in soil enzyme activity and enzyme stoichiometry during grazing exclusion to understand how vegetation restoration affects soil nutrient availability, and to elucidate the mechanisms of nutrient cycling in ecosystems. In this study, therefore, the responses of soil in sagebrush desert grassland to 6 years of grazing exclusion were initially analyzed by measuring soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents, as well as soil enzyme activities and their stoichiometry. The results showed that: 1) There were no significant changes in soil organic C, total N, and total P contents, soil C/P, soil N/P, soil leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase activities and soil enzyme C/N, in the 0-20 cm soil layer after grazing exclusion. The activities of β-1, 4-glucosidase in April and β-1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminidase in July Manasi showed an increasing trend, compared with those in the control, after grazing exclusion; 2) Grazing exclusion significantly affected the soil C/N in July Manasi, increased soil enzyme C/P in April, and decreased soil enzyme N/P values in July Manasi. In a vector analysis, the vector lengths of all samples increased significantly in April after grazing exclusion, and the vector lengths of all samples before and after grazing exclusion were greater than 45°, suggesting that the soil microorganisms in the study area were mainly limited by C and P; 3) The results of a redundancy analysis showed that soil C, N, and P contents and their stoichiometric characteristics explained 56.03% of the variance in soil enzyme activity and stoichiometric and vector characteristics after grazing exclusion. These results indicate that soil organic C content may be the main factor influencing the activity of soil enzymes and their characteristics in sagebrush desert grasslands.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    An evaluation of a remote sensing method based on optimized triangular vegetation index (TVI) for aboveground shrub biomass estimation in shrub-encroached grassland
    Zheng-yong XU, Bin SUN, Wang-fei ZHANG, Yi-fu LI, Zi-yu YAN, Wei YUE, Si-han TENG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 1-14.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022488
    Abstract403)   HTML53)    PDF (2836KB)(604)       Save

    Shrub-encroachment onto grassland is becoming an important ecological problem in grassland ecosystems, and accurate estimation of the shrub above-ground biomass (AGB) in shrub-encroached grassland vegetation plays a significant role in research into regional ecosystem carbon cycles. Due to the dual effects of soil background noise and differences in vegetation growth structure characteristics, the traditional vegetation indices are extremely unstable for model-building involving shrub-encroached grassland AGB estimation. To solve this problem, in this study we developed a novel way by optimizing the triangular vegetation index (TVI) using Sentinel-2 remote sensing data for shrub-encroached grassland AGB estimation. The results showed that: 1) In the area dominated by herbaceous vegetation, TVI calculated using a combination of green, red-edge and near-infrared ( R 560 R 705 and R 865 ) performed best with an R2 of 0.684; in the area dominated by shrub vegetation, the TVI again performed best with R2= 0.368. 2) When analyzing the sensitivity of the 12 commonly used vegetation indexes to soil noise, the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) was the most sensitive to soil noise in the area dominated by herbaceous vegetation; in the area dominated by shrub vegetation, the modified soil adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI) was the most sensitive. 3) In the area dominated by herbaceous vegetation, the optimized vegetation index grassland triangular vegetation index (GTVI) performed better than TVI with the value of R C V 2 (coefficient of determination cross validation) increased by 0.153 and the value of R M S E C V decreased by 12.222 g·m-2; in the area dominated by shrub vegetation, GTVI performed better than TVI and the R C V 2 value increased 0.029, while the R M S E C V (root mean square error cross validation) decreased 1.684 g·m-2. 4) The estimation results acquired by GTVI showed the highest accuracy when compared with the results estimated by the commonly used 12 vegetation indices. The results of this study are expected to provide a scientific basis and reference AGB estimation in shrub-encroached grassland using vegetation indices extracted from remote sensing data.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Identification, evolution and expression analysis of the CCoAOMT family genes in Medicago sativa
    Qian MA, Qi YAN, Zheng-she ZHANG, Fan WU, Ji-yu ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2021, 30 (11): 144-156.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020429
    Abstract727)   HTML29)    PDF (3463KB)(1363)       Save

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a forage legume with high feed quality widely cultivated all over the world. It contains lignins that play an important role in stress resistance of alfalfa. However, lignin seriously affects the nutritional value of alfalfa because it is difficult for livestock to digest. Therefore, it is necessary to breed alfalfa varieties with low lignin content. Caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is a key enzyme in the lignin synthesis pathway. In this study, the members of CCoAOMT gene family in the alfalfa genome were identified by bioinformatic methods, and the gene structure, chromosome location, phylogeny and gene expression were analysed. It was found that there were 44 MsCCoAOMT genes in the alfalfa genome. These genes were distributed on 16 chromosomes with tandem duplication, among which 36 (82%) MsCCoAOMT genes contained 5 exons. A phylogenetic tree was constructed and showed that MsCCoAOMT family genes can be classified into 5 groups. In addition, ten conserved motifs were found by predicting the motif of MsCCoAOMT protein with MEME software. qRT-PCR results indicated that most of MsCCoAOMT genes were tissue-specific in their expression. Our results provide reference information for the genetic improvement of alfalfa and development of lines with low lignin content.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    A taxonomic inventory of national key protected wild plants in Qinghai Province, based on the national checklist of key protected wild plants (2021)
    Jin-yuan CHEN, Wei-bo DU, Xu SU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (9): 1-12.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021502
    Abstract997)   HTML35)    PDF (1244KB)(604)       Save

    Following the new national checklist of key protected wild plants, we made a taxonomic inventory of key nationally protected wild plants in the Qinghai Province. Data was drawn from consulting relevant literature and inspection of herbarium specimens. Our aim was to better understand their plant types, family and genus distribution, endemism, conservation status, and geographical distribution. It was found that: 1) Compared with species checklists in 1999, 44 key nationally protected wild species are newly added into the species list for Qinghai Province. 2) In Qinghai Province there are 53 species and one variety, 30 genera, 22 families and three categories of key nationally protected wild plants listed. Among them, Nostoc flagelliforme is a level-one key protected wild plant, and 52 species and one variety are level-two key protected wild plants. 3) The family with the largest number of plants listed is the Orchidaceae with 10 species, and the most commonly listed genus is Cypripedium containing eight species. 4) There is one genus endemic to China, there are three genera endemic to China and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), nine species endemic to China, nine species endemic to the QTP, 13 species endemic to China and the QTP and one species, Meconopsis barbiseta, endemic to Qinghai Province. 5) With respect to conservation status, there are 18 species listed as vulnerable (VU) level, and 12 species listed as endangered (EN) among the 54 key nationally protected wild species from Qinghai Province, which accounted for 55.55% of the total species. 6) Most of the key nationally protected wild species are distributed mainly in the alpine grassland and forest vegetation of Yushu and Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Haidong city, which is consistent with the plant diversity distribution pattern in Qinghai Province. There are 53 species and one variety of key nationally protected wild plants in Qinghai Province, most of which are level-two key protected wild plants. Among these, 32 species are endemic species, accounting for 59.25% of the total, and 30 species are among the threatened species. Most of the key nationally protected wild plants are distributed in the southeast of Qinghai Province.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Meta-analysis of the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the yield and quality of wheat
    Shou-xia XU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (7): 192-204.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023289
    Abstract37)   HTML3)    PDF (3892KB)(71)       Save

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important grains cultivated by humans, and as such, it plays a key role in ensuring food security. Achieving higher and more stable yields and better quality of wheat grains is an important scientific issue. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbionts in plant roots, and can improve plant nutrition, yield, and quality. Many studies have demonstrated that AM can promote wheat plant growth and improve grain yields. In this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of AM fungi on the grain yield and quality of wheat based on 171 published reports. This allowed for the systematic and comprehensive evaluation of the roles of AM in wheat production and the identification of AM fungi species or genera that consistently increase wheat grain yield and quality. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that AM can increase wheat grain yield by up to 24.2% as a result of increasing grain number per spike (by up to 17.1%) and the thousand-grain weight (by up to 15.7%). In addition, AM can improve wheat quality by increasing protein content (by up to 15.7%) and the contents of nutrients such as phosphorus and zinc (by up to 15.2% and 21.5%, respectively). Improvements in the yield and quality of wheat grains by AM may be attributed to the improvement of wheat shoot nutrition and leaf chlorophyll content, because AM can increase the concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and zinc by up to 8.4%, 16.2%, 91.2%, and 11.3%, respectively, in the shoots of wheat plants, and the leaf chlorophyll content by up to 27.5%. Furthermore, different genera or species of AM fungi have significantly different effects on wheat yield and quality, and those in the genus Funneliformis have more significant and stable effects on wheat grain yield and quality. In summary, this study comprehensively evaluated how and to what extent AM affect wheat grain yield and quality, and identified which AM fungi consistently promote wheat plant growth and grain yield and quality. These results provide a theoretical and practical basis for the application of AM in wheat production and the selection of the best AM fungi to improve wheat grain yield and quality.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Changes of relationships between dominant species and their relative biomass along elevational gradients in Xinjiang grasslands
    Jing-jing MA, Yun-hua LIU, Jian-dong SHENG, Ning LI, Hong-qi WU, Hong-tao JIA, Zong-jiu SUN, Jun-hui CHENG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2021, 30 (8): 25-35.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020277
    Abstract412)   HTML11)    PDF (3995KB)(326)       Save

    In grassland, dominant species make a major contribution to aboveground biomass. A large number of studies have shown that biomass of dominant species is regulated both by environmental factors and by interspecific relationships among coexisting species. However, our current understanding about relationships between biomass of dominant species and environmental factors remains incomplete for many species and environmental conditions. To address this knowledge gap, this study investigated relative biomass (RB) of dominant species among 9 grassland types across 397 sites in Xinjiang grassland during 2011-2013. Firstly, we evaluated community composition for each grassland type and identified dominant species. Secondly, we explored relationships between RB of dominant species and elevation as well as linkage of RB among coexising dominant species using a general linear model. Our results showed that: 1) A total of 169 dominant species, which belong to 120 genera and 31 families, were identified in Xinjiang grasslands, with 19.53% of dominant species belonging to the Poaceae. In particular, Stipa capillata was the most important dominant species for alpine steppe, temperate meadow steppe, temperate steppe desert, temperate steppe and temperate desert steppe, while Polygonum viviparumAchillea millefolium, and Ceratocarpus arenarius were the most important dominant species for alpine meadow, mountain meadow and temperate desert, respectively. 2) Relationships between RB of dominant species and elevation could be classified into the following five groups: no significant relationship, a U pattern (decreased initially and then increased with increasing elevation), a significant positive relationship, a significant negative relationship and an arch-shaped pattern (increased initially and then decreased). These five behavioral groups comprised, respectively, 50 (64.9%), 9 (11.7%), 8 (10.4%), 6 (7.8%) and 4 (5.2%) of dominant species. 3) A total of 19 significant paired relationships were found involving 24 dominant species coexisting with another species. Most coexisting dominant species pairs were negatively correlated with each other in terms of their RB. These findings demonstrated that previous results indicating a varied relationship between biomass of dominant species and elevation were not conflicting. Rather different patterns concurrently exist in Xinjiang grassland driven by variation between sites in species behavior. Our findings highlight the importance of dominant species and interspecific relationships among coexisting dominant species in biomass conservation and management in Xinjiang grasslands.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research status and suggestions for grassland carbon sequestration and emission reduction in China
    Zi-jing LI, Cui-ping GAO, Zhong-wu WANG, Guo-dong HAN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (2): 191-200.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022049
    Abstract411)   HTML31)    PDF (715KB)(387)       Save

    With rapid economic development, and continuing increase in the emission of greenhouse gases, coupled with intensification of human use of natural resources, the carbon sequestration capacity of the global ecosystem has weakened, and the concentration of greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere has reached a new high. This has become a major global issue of general concern to the international community. China’s grassland carbon sink resources are unique, and the development of the grassland carbon sink economy has become an important vehicle for fulfilling international commitments, creating a new carbon sequestration economy and building a beautiful China with regenerative food production systems. This study reviews the current status of grassland carbon sequestration and emission reduction in China and the factors influencing sequestration, including research into grassland carbon sink capacity and reduction of emissions linked to livestock production now that there is a background of climate change and establishment of sown artificial grassland construction. Our review proposes a plan for the development of grassland carbon sequestration and emission reduction in China and provides a theoretical basis for contribution to carbon neutrality, and carbon sequestration and emission reduction in China’s grasslands.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Economic cost assessment of global invasive plants
    Guang-hua ZHAO, Ming-long GAO, Duo WANG, Shi-qi FAN, Jian TANG, Kuo SUN, Xuan-ye WEN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (5): 16-24.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023220
    Abstract204)   HTML42)    PDF (2111KB)(306)       Save

    Among invasive species, plants comprise the most diverse and numerous biological groups. Assessing the economic cost of invasive plants is an important part of risk management and is essential for the development of policies for control or eradication. In this study, based on the InvaCost database, we assessed the economic costs of global invasive plants from 1970 to 2017. The main results were as follows: 1) The conservative economic cost of invasive plants from 1970 to 2017 was 194.365 billion U.S. dollars (USD), 4.049 billion USD per year on average, of which the direct economic loss amounted to 100.468 billion USD, accounting for 51.69% of the total. 2) Among 64 countries and regions, the United States has borne the highest economic costs, followed by Australia, and China ranks third with costs of 20.831 billion USD (equivalent to 140.707 billion RMB). Notably, Eichhornia crassipes has been the most expensive invasive plant species globally, with the costs of its damage exceeding the combined costs of invasive plants ranking 5th to 10th. 3) Over the past five decades, the economic cost of invasive plants has shown an upward trend. Model estimates suggest that the possible cost of invasive plants in 2017 ranged from 3.438 billion to 10.452 billion USD, with the highest confidence value being 7.725 billion USD. The results of this study contribute to a deeper understanding of the severity of invasive plant threats and provide a scientific basis for more proactive invasive plant management in China.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Genome-wide identification and bioinformatics analysis of CBF/DREB1 transcription factors in wild rice
    Chen-min HUO, Min YUAN, Bao-wen ZHANG, Rui-ju WANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (6): 126-144.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023251
    Abstract52)   HTML3)    PDF (10226KB)(70)       Save

    Low temperature and cold damage are important factors limiting the regional distribution and yield of cultivated rice, and this seriously affects food security in China. The C-repeat binding factor cold-regulated gene (CBF-COR) pathway with CBF/DREB1 transcription factors as the core component is an important signal transduction pathway involved in the cold acclimation of rice. A total of 71 members of the CBF/DREB1 gene subfamily were identified based on whole genome sequencing results and hidden markov model (HMM) searches of nine species in the rice (Oryza) genus. All genes were intron-free and consisted of a single exon. Most of them encoded weakly acidic proteins. All putative DREB1 proteins had a grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY) of <0. A phylogenetic analysis divided into three groups: Group I (DREB1A/1B/1H), Group Ⅱ (DREB1C/1E/1F/1G), and Group Ⅲ (DREB1D/1I/1J). The motif composition differed among the groups, although all of the putative proteins contained the characteristic AP2 domain and flanking sequence. An adaptive evolutionary analysis of japonica subspecies and other rice orthologuous gene pairs showed that the nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution rate/synonymous nucleotide substitution rate (Ka/Ks) values for the gene pairs OsDREB1A/ObDREB1AOsDREB1D/OnDREB1D,OsDREB1I/OsIDREB1I, and OsDREB1J/OsIDREB1J were greater than 1, indicating that they were under positive selection pressure. The types and numbers of promoter elements were similar in orthologs, but differed between paralogs. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted for 7-day-old seedlings of Nipponbare, 93-11 and Dongxiang wild rice after 2 hours of cold treatment at 4 ℃. The results showed that, during the early cold response, some DREB genes were activated (DREB1A/1B/1C/1E/1F/1G/1H) and others were inhibited (DREB1D/1I/1J). Among the cold-activated genes in Nipponbare, 93-11, and Dongxiang wild rice, DREB1B/1G/1H were the first and the fastest to respond to cold. All of these three genes had at least one copy of the CAMTA transcription factor binding element CM2 (CCGCGT) in their promoter regions. The transcript levels of OrDREB1B/1C/1E/1F/1G/1H in Dongxiang wild rice were higher than those of their homologs in cultivated rice after 4 hours of cold treatment at 4℃. The results of this molecular evolutionary study on the CBF/DREB1 gene subfamily in nine species in the Oryza genus provide a preliminary basis for the mining and utilization of low-temperature resistance genes.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Effect of seasonal transformation of flower morphology on reproduction of Viola philippica
    Hui-fang SUN, Yan WEI, Zi-yan YAN, Cheng YAN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2020, 29 (12): 198-204.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020044
    Abstract395)   HTML5)    PDF (1234KB)(418)       Save

    Viola philippica is a garden plant with excellent ornamental characteristics, and there are large germplasm resources for this species. V. philippica forms different types of flowers during the growing season. The objective of this study was to determine how this variable florescence phenology affects the breeding system. V. philippica produces two kinds of flowers. In spring, it forms chasmogamous flowers with five petals and five calyxes. These flowers are produced in a mass-flowering pattern in a short period from mid- to late April. The flowers produced in summer and autumn are cleistogamous. They have no petals, and the sepals wrap the female parts and stamens. The cleistogamous flowers are produced in an extended flowering pattern from early May to the beginning of September. The average number of pollen grains per chasmogamous flower was 7053, and the pollen/ovule ratio (P/O) was 173.32-204.49. There were 179.2 pollen grains per cleistogamous flower, and the P/O value was 4.46-5.95. The results show that the breeding system of open flowers is heterozygous, partially compatible, and pollinated, while the closed flowers are fertilized. The style of chasmogamous flowers has a curved structure, and nectaries at the base of the dorsal part of the lower two stamens extend to the base of the petals. Bee pollinators press the stigma by colliding with the style, pushing the stamen arm in a lever motion to pollinate, thus promoting the separation of the appendages. The cleistogamous flowers show strict closed fertilization and do not require pollination. The seed setting rate and seed setting rate per individual plant are significantly higher for plants with cleistogamous flowers than for plants with chasmogamous flowers.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Screening and adaptability evaluation of early maturing oats in alpine regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
    Chun-yan REN, Guo-ling LIANG, Wen-hui LIU, Kai-qiang LIU, Jia-lei DUAN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (9): 116-129.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022414
    Abstract151)   HTML9)    PDF (4411KB)(170)       Save

    In order to select and breed early-maturing Avena sativa varieties with high yield and quality adapted to the high altitude region of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, 595 oat germplasm lines planted in the Xining area were classified for maturity twenty two early-maturing oat lines with excellent yield were selected and evaluated for adaptability in 2 experimental sites in Haibei and Huangzhong. Early maturing oat lines with good production performance were selected for grain trait comparison, providing a theoretical basis for selecting and breeding early-maturing oats suitable for planting and promotion in the high altitude region of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. It was found that: 1) Early-maturing oats mainly have a shorter duration of stem elongation and post-flowering maturation growth stages, and thus the whole reproductive period is shortened. The average hay yield of mid-season maturing and late-season maturing oat lines was higher (4744.8 and 4999.9 kg·ha-1, respectively) while the average grain yield of mid-maturing oat lines was the highest (3186.9 kg·ha-1). 2) Among the 22 early-maturing oat resources screened, the average forage yield was higher at the Haibei test site (10209.5 kg·ha-1), and the average grain yield was higher in the Huangzhong test site (2640.6 kg·ha-1). The average maturity date of oats at the Haibei test site at an altitude of 3100 m was 15.3 d later than at the Huangzhong test site at an altitude of 2700 m, and the maturation time of more than 116 d meant that the Haibei site could not be used for grain production. 3) The seed germination performance of oats grown at the Huangzhong test site was much higher than that of those grown at the Haibei test site. Lines QYJ 782 and QYJ 797 had good germination performance at both test sites. Based on multivariate analysis of oat yield and seed trait data, lines QYJ 782 and QYJ 797 are suitable for planting in the area surrounding lake in Qinghai province at an altitude of about 3100 m. They are able to mature successfully and forage yield and seed yield is significantly better than the currently promoted varieties. These lines can therefore be recommended for use in the region.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Determination of the nutrient digestibility of herbage consumed by grazing animals
    You-shun JIN, Fu-jiang HOU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (5): 200-212.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021089
    Abstract390)   HTML19)    PDF (1630KB)(543)       Save

    Nutrient digestibility of herbage consumed by grazing livestock is one of the key indicators for grassland management, and is a function of both the biomass and nutritional quality of forage, and the health and production status of livestock. Nutrient digestibility of forage consumed by grazing livestock can be determined by direct or indirect methods. The direct methods include, among others, the total feces collection method, the indigestible marker method and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The indirect methods include in vivo or in vitro fermentation digestibility determinations, the forage quality prediction method and the climate prediction method. The total fecal collection method is a comparatively accurate method, provided that the feed dry matter intake and feces dry weight are accurately determined. However, it is time-consuming and laborious, and has a great impact on the grazing behavior. Moreover, it is difficult to reflect the spatial heterogeneity of forage supply in the pasture. The indigestible marker method estimates the nutrient digestibility according to the proportion of indigestible matter recovered and causes little disturbance to the grazing behavior of livestock. However, it is not easy to analyze for the indigestible marker, and the method is not suitable for wild grazing animals. The NIRS method has high efficiency, low labor intensity, low cost, and does not have any effects on livestock, so it can estimate the nutrient digestibility of forage consumed by grazing livestock on a large scale. However, NIRS requires a lot of directly measured calibration data to improve the prediction accuracy. The climate estimation method is fast, and therefore time-saving but is also less accurate. Climate estimation is therefore suitable for large spatial and temporal scales. The nutrient digestibility of forage consumed by grazing livestock is closely related to biological factors, environmental factors and social factors such as livestock class, grassland type, grazing methods employed, temperature and precipitation. Combined with remote sensing, unmanned aerial vehicle methods and artificial intelligence, the nutrient digestibility of forage consumed by grazing livestock can be accurately and quickly measured, providing support for grassland ecological restoration and livestock health and management.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Effects of Chinese milk vetch combined with reduced chemical fertilizer on soil phosphorus adsorption and desorption characteristics in different years
    Cheng-lan ZHANG, Chun-zeng LIU, Yu-hu LYU, Ben-yin LI, Lin ZHANG, Li DING, Guang-hui DU, Xiang-ning ZHANG, Chun-feng ZHENG, Ji-shi ZHANG, Min LI, Wei-dong CAO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (7): 41-52.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023300
    Abstract39)   HTML7)    PDF (1592KB)(76)       Save

    The aim of this study was to clarify the dynamic effects of Chinese milk vetch coupled with reduced chemical fertilizer on soil phosphorus adsorption and desorption characteristics in different years. This long-term field study was conducted in Xinyang, Henan province. The experimental design consisted of a control (no fertilizer, CK) and four treatments: fertilizer only (CF), 22500 kg·ha-1 Chinese milk vetch+80% fertilizer (G+80% CF), 22500 kg·ha-1 Chinese milk vetch+60% fertilizer (G+60% CF), and 22500 kg·ha-1 Chinese milk vetch+40% fertilizer (G+40% CF). We determined the change trends of soil phosphorus adsorption and desorption characteristics, as well as their relationships with soil physicochemical properties in 2011, 2016, and 2020. The results showed that the Langmuir isothermal adsorption equation provided a good fit for the adsorption characteristics of soil phosphorus (R2=0.9804-0.9949, P<0.01). The maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity (Qmax) of soil samples from the G+80% CF, G+60% CF, and G+40% CF treatments decreased from 2011 to 2020, whereas the phosphorus adsorption constant (K) and maximum phosphorus buffer capacity (MBC) increased over the same time period. Compared with their respective values in 2011, the Qmax of the G+80% CF, G+60% CF, and G+40% CF treatments had decreased by 11.30%, 12.95%, and 15.47%; K had increased by 20.73%, 22.50%, and 27.27%; and the MBC had increased by 8.63%, 6.43%, and 6.28% in 2020. In contrast, in the CF treatment, the Qmax of soil phosphorus increased with increasing age, whereas K and MBC decreased with increasing age. Compared with their respective values in 2011, the Qmax of soil phosphorus had increased by 8.80%, K had decreased by 12.20%, and MBC had decreased by 2.97% in 2020. In all treatments, the soil phosphorus adsorption saturation (DPS) did not show any consistent changes over the experimental period. The average desorption rate of soil phosphorus decreased during the experimental period in the CK and CF treatments, initially decreased and then increased in the G+80% CF and G+40% CF treatments, and showed a decreasing trend in the G+60% CF treatment. Compared with CK, the application of reduced chemical fertilizer coupled with Chinese milk vetch decreased the Qmax of soil phosphorus and increased the K, MBC, DPS, and average desorption rate of soil phosphorus in the same year. The results of correlation analysis showed that Qmax was significantly positively correlated with soil cation exchange capacity (CEC), MBC was significantly negatively correlated with CEC, DPS was significantly positively correlated with alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen (AN) and available phosphorus (AP), and the desorption rate (DR) was significantly negatively correlated with available potassium (AK) and pH. The results of a redundancy analysis revealed that CEC, AP, and AK were the primary factors affecting soil phosphorus adsorption and desorption characteristics, with contribution rates of 26.7%, 18.5%, and 16.2%, respectively (P<0.05). In summary, our results indicate that the adsorption and desorption of soil phosphorus are mainly affected by the soil CEC, AP, and AK. Long-term application of Chinese milk vetch coupled with reduced chemical fertilizer decreased P adsorption and increased P desorption in soil, while the long-term application of fertilizer alone had the opposite effect. Considering the adsorption and desorption characteristics of soil P and soil physical and chemical properties, the best effects were obtained by reducing chemical fertilizer usage by 20%-40% combined with 22500 kg·ha-1 Chinese milk vetch. Our findings provide scientific guidance for reasonable fertilization in the rice-growing area of south Henan province.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Precision grazing management of grassland: Concept, theory, technology and paradigm
    De-li WANG, Ling WANG, Guo-dong HAN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (12): 191-199.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022047
    Abstract422)   HTML18)    PDF (1865KB)(386)       Save

    With the development of human understanding of the multi-functionality of grassland, coupled with the increasing demand for grassland ecological services, animal production and pastoral living, it is necessary to update the concept of grassland management, develop higher level livestock grazing and feeding technology based on multidisciplinary theories, and establish a more effective grassland grazing management paradigm. This study considers both the background and characteristics of the grassland resources and modern multi-dimensional social demands, and develops the concept of precise grassland grazing management which encompasses the versatility and stability of the grassland ecosystem and sustainability as the goal and the use of grassland science, animal science, ecology and other multi-disciplinary theories, based on the habitat conditions, especially the vegetation characteristics, livestock classes and their requirements, and livestock-vegetation interactions. Through multi-dimensional, effective and directional regulation of the livestock grazing process, the grassland management and utilization paradigm of synergistic balance between production and ecological functions can be finally realized. Also, the concepts and connotations of precise grazing and its relevant theoretical bases are systematically explained, including the plant compensatory growth mechanism, the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, the theory of diversifying grazing livestock, mechanisms of plant-animal interactions, nutrition regulation principles and versatility synergy. These concepts form a scientific basis for the regulation of grazing pressure and livestock assembly. In conjunction with this coverage, the key points in precision grazing are reviewed, such as dynamic optimal stocking rate (threshold), mixed grazing (species and proportion), remote sensing information options (satellite, unmanned aerial vehicle monitoring, large scale data processing) and other related supporting technologies. Finally, the authors sum up the concept of grassland multifunctionality as a goal of “combining productive function and ecological service in a win-win manner”, so providing a precise grazing management paradigm. This approach provides a principle for the integration of natural grassland grazing, grassland grazing with supplementary feeding, and drylot feeding, reflecting region-wide whole industry regulation of livestock grazing pressure/assembly and provision for animal nutrition, while aiming for grassland grazing systems to achieve an overall “livestock-vegetation balance”. Such a system will generate high quality animal products and sustainable ecological services. Precise grazing management of grassland is advanced, practical and extensive, and therefore is a desirable choice for future grassland management with great potential and prospect.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Progress in research and practice of restoration of degraded grassland around the world
    Li GAO, Yong DING
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (10): 189-205.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022077
    Abstract632)   HTML58)    PDF (683KB)(520)       Save

    Grassland is one of the most important terrestrial ecosystems on earth, and brings humankind a series of ecosystem services, including food production, climate regulation, air purification, water conservation, wind prevention and sand fixation. Nearly half of the grasslands in the world are affected by climate change and human factors, and thus display different degrees of degradation. This degradation has become one of the world’s ecological and environmental problems. Much research on restoration of degraded grasslands has been carried out around the world with findings often leading to change in practice, and great progress has been made. However, at the beginning of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021-2030), a new generation of restoration research and practice projects is needed to cope with global environmental challenges. This paper summarizes the research and practice of degraded grassland restoration around the world, in the hope of learning from the existing grassland restoration work. On this basis, it is anticipated that we can map out the main direction of future research on degraded grassland restoration, and formulate reasonable restoration plans for degraded grassland, so as to provide reference information for new grassland restoration research and practice in the context of global change.

    Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Effects of living mulch on soil physical and chemical properties in orchards: a review
    CAO Quan, SHEN Yu-Ying, WANG Zi-Kui, ZHANG Xiao-Ming, YANG Xuan
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2016, 25 (8): 180-188.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2015500
    Abstract1010)   HTML11)    PDF (428KB)(982)       Save

    A review has been undertaken to provide a basis for further research on and the application of living mulch practices in orchards. The effects of living mulch on soils’ physical and chemical properties make an important contribution to intensive, efficient, ecological and sustainable production. Forage cultivation can reduce soil bulk density by 4.7%-13.0% and improve the content of soil aggregates, thus enhancing hydraulic properties and water retention capacity. Forage cultivation can also help to raise rainfall interception and improve water use efficiency. Forage grass will compete for water with fruit trees in drought seasons, though adverse effects can be reduced by selecting appropriate grass varieties and strengthening field management. Forage grass cover can improve soil organic carbon (SOC) content. SOC can be improved by 19.6%-27.8% after planting forage grass for 6 years. The accumulation of SOC increases as the duration of forage planting increases. Living mulch can help to adjust soil temperature, which enhances microbial diversity and enzymatic activity. Living mulch will directly deplete soil nutrients, but the increase in the number of microorganisms can promote the decomposition of organic matter that increases nutrients. Moreover, legumes add nutrients through nitrogen fixation. Living mulch usually has a positive effect on soil nutrient accumulation.

    Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Progress in research on diseases of Avena sativa
    LI Chun-Jie, CHEN Tai-Xiang, ZHAO Gui-Qin, NAN Zhi-Biao
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2017, 26 (12): 203-222.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2017089
    Abstract506)   HTML7)    PDF (1230KB)(1021)       Save
    Disease is one of the limiting factors for the production of oats ( Avena sativa), affecting crop yield and quality directly, and the productivity of grassland agro-ecosystems indirectly as well. Based on a review of published domestic and international literatures, the etiology, seed-borne fungi, rule of occurrence, disease resistance and control measurements of oat diseases are reported. Domestic research progress is compared with international efforts and future development goals for oat disease research are also presented.
    Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Effects of water and fertilizer on growth and photosynthetic pigments of Puelia sinense
    ZHANG Ming-Jin, CHEN Liang-Hua, Hu Xiang-Wei, Xu Rui, ZHANG Jian
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2015, 24 (5): 75-83.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20150509
    Abstract1943)   HTML1)    PDF (876KB)(929)       Save
    A pot experiment was conducted to detect the interaction effect of water and fertilizer on growth and photosynthetic pigments of Puelia sinense. The experiment was a completely randomized design with 9 factorial combinations of 3 levels of water [drought, 25% field capacity (FC); control, 75% FC; flooding, 100% FC)] and fertilizer (low, moderate, high levels of fertilizer). Above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass, total biomass, and root: shoot ratio were significantly affected by the interaction of water and fertilizer. For the control water treatment, a high level of fertilization led to increased tiller number and plant height, and greater below-ground, above-ground, and total plant biomass. This combination was the best among the 9 combinations. These results indicate that normal supply of water and high nutrient supply are the optimal conditions to achieve a high yield for this species. Both flooding and drought were detrimental to tillering and growth. However, under water deficit where a tillering reduction was observed, tillering capacity could be improved through fertilization. Under flooding, high fertilization was not beneficial and a moderate amount of fertilizer was sufficient for optimal accumulation of below-ground biomass. Plants in these conditions had a higher root to shoot ratio, possibly a plant response to hypoxic conditions. Compared to flooding, drought was more detrimental to the accumulation of above-ground biomass. In order to adapt to drought, P. sinense allocated more assimilate to the belowground organs. The increased root: shoot ratio was presumably advantageous for plant water capture and so to adaptation to drought. Interestingly, under water deficit stress, concentrations of photosynthetic pigments were significantly higher than those under control conditions. With increase in fertilization, contents of photosynthetic pigments also increased, especially when exposed to drought at the same time. These results elucidated some morphological and physiological adaptive mechanisms of this species when responding to water-deficit. Increased fertilization could mitigate the detrimental effects of water deficit stress on plant growth to some degree.
    Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Desert grassland dynamics in the last 20 years and its response to climate change in Xinjiang
    Chen CHEN, Chang-qing JING, Wen-yuan XING, Xiao-jin DENG, Hao-yu FU, Wen-zhang GUO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2021, 30 (3): 1-14.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020143
    Abstract697)   HTML48)    PDF (4374KB)(646)       Save

    Desert grassland is a key type of land ecosystem in arid and semi-arid areas. Desert grassland has an important ecological role and is sensitive to human activities and global change. In this paper, we studied the dynamic changes in desert grassland in Xinjiang and the responses to different driving factors on different time scales and spatial scales for the period 1999-2018. We first extracted the coverage of desert grassland in Xinjiang and determined the desert grassland threshold values for normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Then, we used a unitary linear regression model, correlation analysis and other methods to combine NDVI, net primary productivity (NPP), meteorological factors and other data to study the changes in area of desert grassland and their driving mechanisms. The results showed that: 1) There were differences in the distribution of desert grasslands in the North and South of Xinjiang during the study period. Over all the area of desert grassland decreased significantly, while the average NDVI was relatively stable, and the NPP showed an upward trend. 2) Meteorological factors over the study period showed different trends at different times of the year. In July and August there were significant differences between North and South Xinjiang. Temperature and precipitation in most regions of Xinjiang increased between 1999 and 2018. 3) In terms of interannual changes, precipitation, high evaporation events, and average wind speed are the important factors affecting NDVI of desert grasslands in Xinjiang. The effect of water conditions on NDVI in the growing season is more obvious. There is a significant negative correlation between annual evaporation and desert grassland NPP, and average wind speed and precipitation have a correlation with desert grassland NPP. 4) In terms of spatial correlation, the area where temperature and precipitation are positively correlated with the NDVI and NPP of desert grassland is larger than that dominated by other factors, and the area where the precipitation effect dominates is larger than that driven by temperature. It was concluded that the dynamic changes of desert grassland in Xinjiang were the result of the combined effects of multiple meteorological factors. Temperature and precipitation were the main factors of influence, and of these the impact of precipitation was more obvious. Water status is the decisive factor driving dynamic vegetation change in desert grassland.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Effect of anthracnose infection on alfalfa yield and quality in the Shaerqin area
    ZHANG Li-li, SHI Min, LI Yan-zhong
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2020, 29 (6): 117-126.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2019546
    Abstract291)   HTML1)    PDF (908KB)(357)       Save
    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum americae-borealis is a serious disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), which has been widespread in Inner Mongolia in recent years. This study evaluated the resistance of 44 alfalfa varieties to anthracnose in the Shaerqin area of Inner Mongolia, in order to determine the anthracnose effect on alfalfa yield and quality. We also evaluated the disease severity in three alfalfa varieties: Hunter river, Magnum 2 and Reindeer. Yield loss assessments were performed to evaluate the effects of anthracnose on nutritional content and amino acid content in the variety reindeer. The results showed that there were differences in resistance to anthracnose among the 44 tested alfalfa varieties. The tested varieties were classified as having high susceptibility (13 varieties), moderate susceptibility (14 varieties), moderate resistance (13 varieties), or high resistance (1 variety). Hunter river, Reindeer, and Magnum 2 were among the highly susceptible varieties and should not be grown in this area. Compared with healthy plants, the plant dry weight of severely affected Hunter river, Magnum 2 and Reindeer varieties was reduced by 6.72%-27.24% ( P<0.05), and yield was significantly reduced by 6.795-37.39% ( P<0.05). Compared with lightly diseased plants, the yields of severely susceptible Reindeer, Magnum 2 and Hunter river decreased significantly by 0.49% to 21.06% ( P<0.05). The contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were, respectively, 20.57% and 15.79% higher in severely diseased plants than in healthy plants ( P<0.05), while other indicators such as crude fat and crude protein were significantly lower (34.53% and 16.52%, respectively) than those in healthy plants ( P<0.05). Anthracnose reduced the amino acid contents of the tested alfalfa varieties ( P<0.05). For example, methionine, isoleucine, lysine, cysteine and histidine contents were reduced by 54.21%-85.88%. A regression equation was established with anthracnose severity as the independent variable and values of the various quality indexes as the dependent variables. Crude fat, neutral detergent fiber, threonine, leucine, alanine, and tyrosine showed a significant negative correlation and a good fit. In summary, when anthracnose is severe, the disease not only significantly reduces the yield, but also affects crop nutritive quality. Therefore, anthracnose should be controlled.
    Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Disease resistance evaluation of 32 alfalfa varieties in Xinjiang
    Yue-yang ZHANG, Fang LI, Wei-wei LIANG, Yan-zhong LI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (2): 133-146.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2020519
    Abstract379)   HTML13)    PDF (1251KB)(384)       Save

    This research aimed to identify disease resistant, high-yielding alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties suitable for planting in Xinjiang and was conducted in Hutubi, Changji City, Xinjiang in 2018 and 2019. Disease incidence and disease indexes were scored on two dates in both years for 32 alfalfa varieties. In total, yield data for 5 cuts were collected and plant survival percentage was measured in 2019. Diseases observed included: Phoma leaf spot and black stem, powdery mildew, alfalfa yellow leaf blotch, Stemphylium leaf spot and Cercospora leaf spot. Among these, the most important were powdery mildew, Phoma leaf spot and black stem, and alfalfa yellow leaf blotch, with the highest incidence of these three diseases being 97.08%, 100.00% and 57.14%, respectively. The resistance of each variety to each disease was evaluated following standardized scoring systems, and “gray incidence degree analysis” was used to analyze the characteristics of each variety and provide a combined trait score based on disease resistance, yield and survival. The 32 tested varieties were categorized as having “high resistance” (HR), “resistance” (R), “medium resistance” (MR), “low resistance” (LR), or as “susceptible” (S) to each of the three main diseases. Among the 32 tested alfalfa varieties, for resistance to Phoma leaf spot and black stem, the numbers of varieties in each of these 5 categories were: 17 HR, 8 R, 4 MR, 1 LR and 2 S. For alfalfa powdery mildew, the numbers of varieties in each category were: 0 HR, 1 R, 8 MR, 5 LR and 18 S. For alfalfa yellow leaf blotch, there 29 HR varieties, 3 R varieties and no MR, LR, or S varieties. The total yields over two seasons for the different varieties ranged from 22.48 t·ha-1 for “Longdong” to 29.52 t·ha-1 for “Longwei 3010”. No freezing injury occurred in any of the tested varieties; all survived well. Plant survival was greater than 80% for all varieties and was above 90% for 22 varieties. The five varieties with the highest combined trait scores from gray analysis were “Phabulous” (score 0.942), “WL363HQ” (0.897), “Zhongmu No.3” (0.877), “Aohan” (0.853) and “Dryland” (0.850), while the five lowest-scoring varieties were Salt-tolerant Star (score 0.650), WL343HQ (0.679), Shockwave (0.699), Instict (0.718) and Longdong (0.721).

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Identification and transcript profiling of the CAMTA gene family under abiotic stress in alfalfa
    Hai-ming KONG, Jia-xing SONG, Jing YANG, Qian LI, Pei-zhi YANG, Yu-man CAO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (5): 143-154.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023240
    Abstract104)   HTML9)    PDF (4900KB)(132)       Save

    Calmodulin-binding transcription activating factors (CAMTA) are calmodulin-binding proteins that play important roles in hormone signal transduction, developmental regulation, and environmental stress tolerance. In this study, bioinformatic methods were used to identify members of the CAMTA family in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) based on the reference genome of M. sativa “XinjiangDaye”. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted to evaluate relationships among the MsCAMTA genes. The physicochemical properties and conserved domains of the putative proteins were determined. The chromosomal positions of MsCAMTA genes were mapped, and cis-acting elements were identified in their promoter regions. The transcriptional profiles of MsCAMTA genes under various stress conditions were analyzed and validated. Seventeen MsCAMTA genes were identified, and the MsCAMTA family members grouped into three subfamilies in the phylogenetic analysis. Members of the same subfamily had relatively similar gene structures and positions of conserved motifs. The chromosomal localization results showed that members of the MsCAMTA family were unevenly distributed on seven chromosomes. A large number of cis-acting elements that respond to low temperature, salt stress, and plant hormone signals were identified in the promoter regions of these genes. We conducted RT-qPCR analyses to determine the transcript levels of MsCAMTA1MsCAMTA3MsCAMTA11, and MsCAMTA12 in alfalfa leaves under salt (300 mmol·L-1 NaCl), simulated drought (400 mmol·L-1 mannitol), low temperature (10 ℃), and abscisic acid (100 μmol·L-1) treatments. All four MsCAMTA candidate genes responded to various stressors to varying degrees. All four were up-regulated under salt stress. The results suggested that MsCAMTA may participate in the responses of alfalfa to various abiotic stresses by integrating multiple stress signals. The results of this study provide a reference for further studies on the functions of MsCAMTA genes in plant response to stress.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics