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    Advances and perspectives in forage oat breeding
    Xue-ling YE, Zhen GAN, Yan WAN, Da-bing XIANG, Xiao-yong WU, Qi WU, Chang-ying LIU, Yu FAN, Liang ZOU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (2): 160-177.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022263
    Abstract623)   HTML54)    PDF (857KB)(699)       Save

    Oat (Avena sativa) is an annual crop belonging to the Poaceae family with resistance to salinity, drought, cold stress, and adaptability to a wide range of environmental conditions including lower soil fertility. Oats are widely grown in temperate regions north of 40° N latitude in Europe, North America, and Asia. Oats also have a high forage yield, high nutritional value, good palatability, high digestibility, and the crop is suitable for silage and hay production. Therefore, oat is a versatile grain crop useful for food and forage purposes. Oat cultivars can be classified as naked or hulled oats depending on whether the grains readily separate from the husk or lemma at threshing. Hulled oats retain their husk. Naked oats without husks are mostly grown in China and are commonly used for food, while hulled oats which retain their husks are mainly grown in other countries, and are often used for feeding livestock. With the rapid development of animal husbandry in China in recent years, the available forage oat varieties are currently in need of improvement. Our country has formulated and implemented a series of policies that include “grass-based livestock husbandry”, “grain to forage” and “planting grass in fields”, which have promoted the rapid development of the forage oat industry. Under the strong support and guidance of these national policies and industry need, the planting area of forage oats has continued to expand, and the demand for new varieties has become increasingly urgent, which also points to higher requirements for the breeding of forage oats. In this study, we reviewed: 1) Collection, sorting, identification, and evaluation of germplasm resources of forage oats at home and abroad; 2) Four development stages of conventional breeding; and 3) The application of molecular technology in scientific research and breeding of oats. Based the above review, the current breeding objectives of forage oats are clarified, and the key points, difficulties, and immediate issues of forage oat breeding are discussed and analyzed, thus providing an important resource to underpin further developments in forage oat breeding.

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    Screening and identification of two potassium solubilizer strains and their effects on the yield and quality of alfalfa
    Yan-jia WANG, Bo-ang HU, Jia-xin CHEN, Li-ting XU, Lin YAO, Li-rong FENG, Chang-hong GUO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (12): 139-149.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023036
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    The study aimed to isolate and screen high-efficiency potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB), and to quantify the effects of KSB application on plant yield and quality. The KSB strains were screened by silicate bacteria media from the rhizosphere soil of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and subsequently the strains were identified by morphological, 16S rDNA sequence, and physiological and biochemical analysis. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation with KSB strains on the yield and quality of alfalfa. Two high-efficiency KSB strains XLT-4 and XLT-7 were obtained with potassium solubilization rates of 10.53% and 9.75%>CK, and identified as Priestia megaterium and Peribacillus frigoritolerans, respectively. These two KSB strains had the metabolic capacity for phosphorus solubilization, siderophore-production and indole acetic acid secretion. Inoculation with XLT-4 and XLT-7 significantly increased plant height, root length, dry and fresh weight above ground and below ground, root activity, the contents of P, K and crude protein in leaves, while the contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were significantly lower than in CK plants. In addition, the inoculation of the two KSB also improved the enzyme activity and available potassium content in alfalfa rhizosphere soil. In this study, the two KSB strains made a major contribution to improving the yield and quality of alfalfa, and these two organisms are high quality strain resources for the development of microbial preparations.

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    Soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen levels and their controlling factors in alpine grassland, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    Yang LI, Yi WANG, Guo-dong HAN, Jian SUN, Ya-feng WANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (6): 50-60.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021161
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    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is an important geographically isolated and distinctive ecological zone in China. Soil microbes are important drivers of the biogeochemical cycle. Microorganisms are considered the core content of soil biochemical processes. Hence, exploring the content characteristics of soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and their drivers is highly relevant to the understanding of ecosystem function. In this study, a field investigation is conducted in alpine meadows and steppes across the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) levels were measured and their relationships with climate, plant community, and soil physicochemical properties were identified. It was found that MBC and MBN contents were higher in alpine meadows than those in alpine steppes. Furthermore, the growing season precipitation (GSP) showed significantly positive correlations with MBC and MBN in both alpine grassland types (P<0.01), while there were significant negative correlations between the growing season temperature (GST) and MBN in the alpine steppe (P<0.01). A structural equation model suggested that soil total nitrogen could mediate the MBC and MBN in the alpine meadow, and soil organic carbon may be the key factor of regulating MBC and MBN in the alpine steppe under the influence of growing season precipitation. The findings provide a theoretical framework for the sustainable management of these grassland ecosystems.

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    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (6): 1-10.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb20220601
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    A taxonomic inventory of national key protected wild plants in Qinghai Province, based on the national checklist of key protected wild plants (2021)
    Jin-yuan CHEN, Wei-bo DU, Xu SU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (9): 1-12.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021502
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    Following the new national checklist of key protected wild plants, we made a taxonomic inventory of key nationally protected wild plants in the Qinghai Province. Data was drawn from consulting relevant literature and inspection of herbarium specimens. Our aim was to better understand their plant types, family and genus distribution, endemism, conservation status, and geographical distribution. It was found that: 1) Compared with species checklists in 1999, 44 key nationally protected wild species are newly added into the species list for Qinghai Province. 2) In Qinghai Province there are 53 species and one variety, 30 genera, 22 families and three categories of key nationally protected wild plants listed. Among them, Nostoc flagelliforme is a level-one key protected wild plant, and 52 species and one variety are level-two key protected wild plants. 3) The family with the largest number of plants listed is the Orchidaceae with 10 species, and the most commonly listed genus is Cypripedium containing eight species. 4) There is one genus endemic to China, there are three genera endemic to China and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), nine species endemic to China, nine species endemic to the QTP, 13 species endemic to China and the QTP and one species, Meconopsis barbiseta, endemic to Qinghai Province. 5) With respect to conservation status, there are 18 species listed as vulnerable (VU) level, and 12 species listed as endangered (EN) among the 54 key nationally protected wild species from Qinghai Province, which accounted for 55.55% of the total species. 6) Most of the key nationally protected wild species are distributed mainly in the alpine grassland and forest vegetation of Yushu and Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Haidong city, which is consistent with the plant diversity distribution pattern in Qinghai Province. There are 53 species and one variety of key nationally protected wild plants in Qinghai Province, most of which are level-two key protected wild plants. Among these, 32 species are endemic species, accounting for 59.25% of the total, and 30 species are among the threatened species. Most of the key nationally protected wild plants are distributed in the southeast of Qinghai Province.

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    An evaluation of a remote sensing method based on optimized triangular vegetation index (TVI) for aboveground shrub biomass estimation in shrub-encroached grassland
    Zheng-yong XU, Bin SUN, Wang-fei ZHANG, Yi-fu LI, Zi-yu YAN, Wei YUE, Si-han TENG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 1-14.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022488
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    Shrub-encroachment onto grassland is becoming an important ecological problem in grassland ecosystems, and accurate estimation of the shrub above-ground biomass (AGB) in shrub-encroached grassland vegetation plays a significant role in research into regional ecosystem carbon cycles. Due to the dual effects of soil background noise and differences in vegetation growth structure characteristics, the traditional vegetation indices are extremely unstable for model-building involving shrub-encroached grassland AGB estimation. To solve this problem, in this study we developed a novel way by optimizing the triangular vegetation index (TVI) using Sentinel-2 remote sensing data for shrub-encroached grassland AGB estimation. The results showed that: 1) In the area dominated by herbaceous vegetation, TVI calculated using a combination of green, red-edge and near-infrared ( R 560 R 705 and R 865 ) performed best with an R2 of 0.684; in the area dominated by shrub vegetation, the TVI again performed best with R2= 0.368. 2) When analyzing the sensitivity of the 12 commonly used vegetation indexes to soil noise, the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) was the most sensitive to soil noise in the area dominated by herbaceous vegetation; in the area dominated by shrub vegetation, the modified soil adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI) was the most sensitive. 3) In the area dominated by herbaceous vegetation, the optimized vegetation index grassland triangular vegetation index (GTVI) performed better than TVI with the value of R C V 2 (coefficient of determination cross validation) increased by 0.153 and the value of R M S E C V decreased by 12.222 g·m-2; in the area dominated by shrub vegetation, GTVI performed better than TVI and the R C V 2 value increased 0.029, while the R M S E C V (root mean square error cross validation) decreased 1.684 g·m-2. 4) The estimation results acquired by GTVI showed the highest accuracy when compared with the results estimated by the commonly used 12 vegetation indices. The results of this study are expected to provide a scientific basis and reference AGB estimation in shrub-encroached grassland using vegetation indices extracted from remote sensing data.

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    Progress of research on hormone regulation of branching or tillering in plants
    Fen-qi CHEN, Jin-qing ZHANG, Hui-ling MA
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (2): 212-225.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023118
    Abstract259)   HTML19)    PDF (1243KB)(527)       Save

    Branching (or tillering in grasses and related taxa) is an important trait of plant architecture and the result of axillary bud initiation and growth, which plays a crucial role in determining the seed yield of crops and forage yield. Multiple hormones and their interactions play key regulatory roles in the occurrence, growth and development of plant branching or tillering. In addition, environmental factors also regulate branching or tillering by changing the hormone contents and their balances within the plant. This study reviews multiple aspects of the mechanisms by which plant branching or tillering is regulated various hormones, including auxin, cytokinin, strigolactones, brassinosteroids, abscisic acid and gibberellins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and complex regulatory networks formed by the interaction of different hormone signals. The aim is to establish a foundation for using hormone regulation mechanisms to cultivate new high-yielding crop plant growth forms with ideal plant architecture. The current issues with hormone regulation mechanisms controlling plant branching or tillering are also analyzed, and future research directions for hormone regulation mechanisms controlling plant branching or tillering are discussed, with the aim of providing a theoretical basis for using hormones to cultivate good varieties.

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    Progress in research and practice of restoration of degraded grassland around the world
    Li GAO, Yong DING
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (10): 189-205.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022077
    Abstract632)   HTML58)    PDF (683KB)(520)       Save

    Grassland is one of the most important terrestrial ecosystems on earth, and brings humankind a series of ecosystem services, including food production, climate regulation, air purification, water conservation, wind prevention and sand fixation. Nearly half of the grasslands in the world are affected by climate change and human factors, and thus display different degrees of degradation. This degradation has become one of the world’s ecological and environmental problems. Much research on restoration of degraded grasslands has been carried out around the world with findings often leading to change in practice, and great progress has been made. However, at the beginning of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021-2030), a new generation of restoration research and practice projects is needed to cope with global environmental challenges. This paper summarizes the research and practice of degraded grassland restoration around the world, in the hope of learning from the existing grassland restoration work. On this basis, it is anticipated that we can map out the main direction of future research on degraded grassland restoration, and formulate reasonable restoration plans for degraded grassland, so as to provide reference information for new grassland restoration research and practice in the context of global change.

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    Estimating grassland above ground biomass based on the STARFM algorithm and remote sensing data——A case study in the Sangke grassland in Xiahe County, Gansu Province
    Yu-zhuo ZHANG, Zhi-gui YANG, Hong-yan YU, Qiang ZHANG, Shu-xia YANG, Ting ZHAO, Hua-hua XU, Bao-ping MENG, Yan-yan LV
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (6): 23-34.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021180
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    Characteristics of remote sensing data include that they are real-time, dynamic and large-scale, so such data have been widely used in grassland resource monitoring and management research. However, a single remote sensing vegetation index can not meet the needs of temporal and spatial resolution in grassland above ground biomass (AGB) monitoring. Therefore, this study generated a high spatial and temporal resolution vegetation index data set based on a time series of Landsat NDVI and MODIS NDVI data, combined with the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM). The data set so generated (NDVISTARFM) had a temporal resolution 16 d and a spatial resolution 30 m. The optimum grassland above ground biomass inversion model was constructed based on measured grassland above ground biomass and NDVISTARFM during the grass growth seasons of 2013-2016. Finally, the spatiotemporal dynamic variation trends of grassland above ground biomass in the study area were analyzed for the period from 2000-2016. It was found that: 1) the optimal estimation model based on NDVISTARFM was a power model, with an R2 of 0.58 and an RMSE 795.62 kg·ha-1. The performance of this model was lower than that of the Landsat NDVI optimal estimation model (R2 =0.76, RMSE=634.83 kg·ha-1), but better than that of the MODIS NDVI optimal estimation model (R2 =0.24, RMSE=937.79 kg·ha-1). 2) The overall accuracy of the optimal estimation model was 84.05%, it was higher than that of MODIS NDVI but lower than that of Landsat NDVI. 3) The grassland above ground biomass showed an increasing trend in most areas from 2000-2016. About 90% of the study area showed an increasing trend with annual increment more than 30 kg·ha-1, while only 2.3% of the study area showed a decreasing trend.

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    Nitrogen fertilizer threshold and uncertainty analysis of typical grassland on the northern slopes of Tianshan Mountains
    Qi-fei HAN, Long YIN, Chao-fan LI, Run-gang ZHANG, Wen-biao WANG, Zheng-nan CUI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (1): 19-32.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023097
    Abstract115)   HTML14)    PDF (3820KB)(490)       Save

    In the context of climate change and increasing human activities, a series of ecological problems have emerged in arid and semi-arid regions as one of the important and very vulnerable components of the terrestrial ecosystem. Exploring the impact of climate change and human activities on the net primary productivity (NPP) is of great significance for the rational use of natural resources and the sustainable development of agriculture and animal husbandry. Nitrogen fertilization is a way to promote increased NPP and appropriate fertilization can improve the NPP of grassland. To further explore the potential use of N fertilization, this study investigated four grassland types, alpine meadow (AM), mid-mountain forest meadow (MMFM), low mountain dry grassland (LMDG) and plain desert grassland (PDG), distributed along the altitude gradient on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains, and employed a denitrification-decomposition model to analyze the NPP responses of the typical grassland ecosystem in this region to the application of different nitrogen fertilizers, and reveal the nitrogen fertilizer threshold and the optimal fertilization strategy. It was found that: 1) Appropriate nitrogen addition led to an increase in NPP of all types of grassland ecosystems, but there was a threshold value for the response of grassland NPP to fertilizer application, and different types of grassland NPP had different threshold values. There was no unified optimal fertilization method applicable to the four types of grassland. LMDG grassland ecosystem is the most sensitive to nitrogen application. 2) The maximum NPP in PDG grassland was achieved by applying 100 kg·ha-1 nitrate twice a year, and the maximum NPP was 68.72 g C·m-2·yr-1. The maximum NPP fertilization strategy in LMDG grassland is 260 kg·ha-1 of urea applied twice a year, and the maximum NPP value is 263.28 g C·m-2·yr-1. The maximum NPP of MMFM was achieved by applying 80 kg·ha-1 of urea once a year, and the maximum NPP is 171.22 g C·m-2·yr-1. In AM grassland, anhydrous ammonia reached the maximum value of NPP (114.62 g C·m-2·yr-1) with the minimum amount of fertilizer (60 kg·ha-1) and was the best nitrogen fertilizer in this grassland type. 3) The result of Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows that PDG and LMDG is more sensitive to fertilization time, and the effect of fluctuation in fertilizer application rate variation on LMDG and MMFM is more obvious.

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    The grassland agriculture of Mongolia and its capacity to inform development in China
    Zhi-peng HUANG, Yi HUANG, Quan-jun YANG, Chao XIA, Yan ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (6): 1-15.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022265
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    Mongolia borders on northern China, has abundant grassland resources and grassland-based livestock husbandry is the pillar industry there. Based on the literature and statistical data, this study surveys the development status of grassland agriculture in Mongolia from three aspects: reform of the pastoral institutional system, the grassland resources, and the development of a grazing-based livestock industry. Our study also analyzes the differences between Mongolia and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Grassland agriculture in Mongolia has undergone three stages of institutional reforms, the post-transformation period began at 1990 and is ongoing till now. The grassland itself is collectively owned and the livestock is privately owned. Under the influences of climate change, over exploitation of grassland, expansion of cultivated land and urban areas, and mining pollution, the grassland area has decreased and the ecological status of the grassland is gradually deteriorating. The proportions for each of Mongolia’s five categories of livestock remain stable but with regional variability and differences. The growth in total livestock numbers is much higher in Mongolia than in Inner Mongolia, China. In recent years, the grazing-based livestock husbandry has faced a problem of an aging population. As a result, the proportion of animal husbandry output value within the national economy has gradually declined and the industrial chain urgently needs to be improved. Finally, this study proposes implications for Mongolia and offers information relevant to the development of grassland agriculture in China.

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    Research progress on effects of nitrogen deposition on soil nitrogen cycling in grassland ecosystems
    Jiao-yun LU, He-shan ZHANG, Hong TIAN, Jun-bo XIONG, Yang LIU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (6): 221-234.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021156
    Abstract536)   HTML40)    PDF (780KB)(442)       Save

    The intensification of human activities and the use of fossil fuels has increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition, which has a significant impact on the nitrogen cycling processes of terrestrial ecosystems, thus affecting ecosystem productivity and stability. Grasslands, are an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, and in many cases are subject to resource loss and nutrient imbalance due to human overuse and lack of awareness of protection needs, in which case the development of animal husbandry enterprises can be severely limited. It is highly relevant to explore the influence of nitrogen deposition on nitrogen cycles of grassland ecosystems for rational development of policy and practice with respect to utilization of grassland resources. This paper tracks published research results at home and abroad and a key finding is that most nitrogen addition inhibits biological nitrogen fixation processes, promotes nitrification, denitrification and mineralization in soils, inhibits the activity of nitrogen fixing microorganisms, and increases the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria of nitrifying microorganisms and expression of functional genes of denitrifying microorganisms, such as nirKnirSnirG and nosZ. However, the responses of the soil nitrogen cycle to nitrogen deposition in a few studies differed from the above due to differences in nitrogen nutrition and nitrogen application measures in a grassland environment. Through summarizing the existing studies, we found that: 1) The effects of nitrogen deposition on the nitrogen cycle differ between studies due to different soil background nutrient levels and nitrogen absorption thresholds; 2) Microorganisms are important participants in the soil nitrogen cycle, and the responses of microorganisms to nitrogen addition differ with different nitrogen application time, frequency and quantity. 3) The various steps of the nitrogen cycle in soils are closely coupled and influence each other, but most of the existing studies only focus on a particular step, and therefore the results do not provide comprehensive insight. Therefore, in future studies, it will be necessary to pay more attention to the study of soil nitrogen cycle microbial changes under particular nitrogen supply conditions in grasslands with different nutrient levels, and consider the multi-step coupling relationship, which is very important to the improvement of grassland ecosystem function and reduction of the threat caused by nitrogen loss from the environment.

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    The role of MAPK in plant response to abiotic stress
    Xin-miao ZHANG, Guo-qiang WU, Ming WEI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (1): 182-197.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023090
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    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a highly conserved serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase, occurring widely in eukaryotic intermediate reaction pathways. Plant MAPK has 11 relatively conserved sub-domains, which are all essential elements for Ser/Thr protein kinase to play its catalytic role, and its expression is regulated by reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and hormones. MAPK phosphorylates a variety of substrates including transcription factors, protein kinases and cytoskeleton related proteins, and plays an important role in regulating plant response to abiotic stresses (salt, drought, extreme temperature, and heavy metals). In this review, we summarize the results of research on the discovery of plant MAPK family members, their structure and classification, regulatory mechanisms, and their roles in response to various abiotic stresses. We also propose directions for future research. The information in this review provides a theoretical basis and identifies genetic resources for the genetic improvement of crops to produce new, stress-resistant varieties.

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    Progress on the taxonomic classification of Medicago species
    Zhi-peng LIU, Guang-peng REN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (11): 191-203.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021426
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    This review investigates the disordered status of the classification of Medicago genus, both domestically and internationally. Several definitions of a taxonomic species were considered and the names and characteristics of 13 Medicago species in China are reported, together with a detailed summary of the names, life forms, chromosome numbers, pollination methods and natural distribution of about 90 Medicago species worldwide, including the classification of 14 sections and 10 subsections in Medicago. The molecular evolutionary relationships between different species, and the geographical origin of Medicago are discussed, and the genetic relationships between different subspecies in the alfalfa complex are further explained. This study puts forward a method of identifying Medicago species on the basis of deep understanding of the concept of species. A wide collection of global Medicago germplasm resources, aiming to further clarify the evolutionary relationship among different sections and different species by molecular evolution methods is proposed. This review provides a reference framework for future Medicago classification and alfalfa cross breeding.

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    Research progress on remote sensing discrimination techniques for grassland botanical species
    Meng-ge HUANG, Xin-hong WANG, Ling-ling MA, Xue-hua YE, Xiao-hua ZHU, Wei-ping KONG, Ning WANG, Qi WANG, Guang-zhou OUYANG, Qing-chuan ZHENG, Xiao-xin HOU, Ling-li TANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (6): 167-185.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022278
    Abstract294)   HTML21)    PDF (1661KB)(401)       Save

    Grassland is an important resource bank for regional economic development and a crucial ecological reservoir for the security of China’s land-based ecological environment. Remote sensing technology is rapid, efficient, and low-cost, and therefore provides the mainstream technical means for large-scale grassland monitoring. The use of remote sensing technology to discriminate grassland species is an important way to monitor the population dynamics and botanical community succession in grassland. Such information is conducive to the timely and accurate detection of changes in the grassland ecological environment and provides an important reference for the scientific management of grassland ecosystems and the construction of an ecologically aware civilization. This study focuses on the problem of remote sensing discrimination of grassland species, clarifies the technical process of grassland species discrimination and introduces the latest research progress. Technical difficulties are covered from three perspectives: The characteristics of the main remote sensing data sources for grassland species discrimination and their acquisition techniques, important grassland species discrimination features and their mining techniques and the current commonly used grassland species discrimination methods and models. This study concludes that hyperspectral and LiDAR remote sensing and their fusion technologies have application prospects in the remote sensing discrimination of grassland species, and that the deep mining of multidimensional features and the effective combination of complementary features can improve the accuracy of grassland species discrimination. This study identifies the main problems of the current remote sensing discrimination technology for grassland species, and opens the prospect of the future precise discrimination of grassland species through remote sensing technology and thereby provides a theoretical reference for a thorough understanding of the field of remote sensing identification of grassland species and in-depth research on grassland species discrimination.

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    Research progress on vigor estimation for forage seeds
    Qi-bo TAO, Xi-hu QIE, Qian ZHANG, Yu-xuan GAO, Ya-qi ZHANG, Rui-zhen ZHANG, Xiao-fei CHEN, Tian-xiu NIU, Xiao-tong SUN, Yu-ting NIE, Ya-ru LIU, Jia-qi HU, Shang-zhi ZHONG, Juan SUN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 200-225.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023007
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    High-quality forage seeds are fundamental materials for grass-husbandry industry development and ecological restoration in China. Seed vigor is an important aspect of evaluate seed quality. The efficient vigor estimation of forage seeds is of great importance for selection of high-quality seed lots for cultivated grassland establishment and improvement of natural grassland, and is therefore critical to ensuring food and ecological security. Numerous studies on diverse forage seed vigor estimation methods and their ability to predict field performance have been carried out and published. In this study, the concepts and methodologies for forage seed vigor estimation are summarized, with particular emphasis on the estimation principles and their application in forage seed vigor estimation of some of the more commonly used methods. Coverage of this review includes forage seed physical properties, germination and seedling growth characteristics, stress testing, physiological and biochemical indicators, and advanced technologies. Future prospects in this field are also identified and discussed, to provide necessary direction for the improvement of future research.

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    Research status and suggestions for grassland carbon sequestration and emission reduction in China
    Zi-jing LI, Cui-ping GAO, Zhong-wu WANG, Guo-dong HAN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (2): 191-200.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022049
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    With rapid economic development, and continuing increase in the emission of greenhouse gases, coupled with intensification of human use of natural resources, the carbon sequestration capacity of the global ecosystem has weakened, and the concentration of greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere has reached a new high. This has become a major global issue of general concern to the international community. China’s grassland carbon sink resources are unique, and the development of the grassland carbon sink economy has become an important vehicle for fulfilling international commitments, creating a new carbon sequestration economy and building a beautiful China with regenerative food production systems. This study reviews the current status of grassland carbon sequestration and emission reduction in China and the factors influencing sequestration, including research into grassland carbon sink capacity and reduction of emissions linked to livestock production now that there is a background of climate change and establishment of sown artificial grassland construction. Our review proposes a plan for the development of grassland carbon sequestration and emission reduction in China and provides a theoretical basis for contribution to carbon neutrality, and carbon sequestration and emission reduction in China’s grasslands.

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    Precision grazing management of grassland: Concept, theory, technology and paradigm
    De-li WANG, Ling WANG, Guo-dong HAN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (12): 191-199.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022047
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    With the development of human understanding of the multi-functionality of grassland, coupled with the increasing demand for grassland ecological services, animal production and pastoral living, it is necessary to update the concept of grassland management, develop higher level livestock grazing and feeding technology based on multidisciplinary theories, and establish a more effective grassland grazing management paradigm. This study considers both the background and characteristics of the grassland resources and modern multi-dimensional social demands, and develops the concept of precise grassland grazing management which encompasses the versatility and stability of the grassland ecosystem and sustainability as the goal and the use of grassland science, animal science, ecology and other multi-disciplinary theories, based on the habitat conditions, especially the vegetation characteristics, livestock classes and their requirements, and livestock-vegetation interactions. Through multi-dimensional, effective and directional regulation of the livestock grazing process, the grassland management and utilization paradigm of synergistic balance between production and ecological functions can be finally realized. Also, the concepts and connotations of precise grazing and its relevant theoretical bases are systematically explained, including the plant compensatory growth mechanism, the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, the theory of diversifying grazing livestock, mechanisms of plant-animal interactions, nutrition regulation principles and versatility synergy. These concepts form a scientific basis for the regulation of grazing pressure and livestock assembly. In conjunction with this coverage, the key points in precision grazing are reviewed, such as dynamic optimal stocking rate (threshold), mixed grazing (species and proportion), remote sensing information options (satellite, unmanned aerial vehicle monitoring, large scale data processing) and other related supporting technologies. Finally, the authors sum up the concept of grassland multifunctionality as a goal of “combining productive function and ecological service in a win-win manner”, so providing a precise grazing management paradigm. This approach provides a principle for the integration of natural grassland grazing, grassland grazing with supplementary feeding, and drylot feeding, reflecting region-wide whole industry regulation of livestock grazing pressure/assembly and provision for animal nutrition, while aiming for grassland grazing systems to achieve an overall “livestock-vegetation balance”. Such a system will generate high quality animal products and sustainable ecological services. Precise grazing management of grassland is advanced, practical and extensive, and therefore is a desirable choice for future grassland management with great potential and prospect.

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    Ecological value and its spatiotemporal dynamic patterns of grassland in China
    Jia-hui LI, Lin HUANG, Jiang-wen FAN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (12): 1-13.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023058
    Abstract256)   HTML37)    PDF (5832KB)(386)       Save

    As China’s largest terrestrial ecosystem and one of the important natural resources, grasslands provide a series of ecosystem services which contribute to human well-being. However, there are still wide expanses of grassland suffering from various degrees of degradation, and requiring urgent conservation and restoration action to improve their quality, function and stability. Accounting of grassland ecological value provides an effective means to monitor the changes in and assess the combined importance of multiple grassland ecosystem functions. This study analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution of grassland ecological value in China from 2000 to 2020. It then assessed the spatiotemporal dynamics of the value of key ecological services of grasslands, including windbreak and sand fixation, water conservation, forage supply and carbon sequestration. Next, adaptation strategies for optimizing and enhancing the grassland ecological value in China were proposed. It was found that in 2020, the ecological value of China’s grassland was 2.47×104 billion CNY, and the value was 7.6 million CNY·km-2, among which the value per unit area of windbreak and sand fixation and species richness maintenance were relatively high, accounting for 27.3% and 25.8% of the total, respectively. In the past 20 years, more than 90% of China’s grassland area has shown an increasing trend in ecological value. This applies especially to grassland located on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the northern Loess Plateau, and the eastern and central parts of Inner Mongolia indicate a rapid growth. Moreover, the sum of grassland ecological values of Mongolia, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan and Xinjiang accounted for about 67.4% of China’s total ecological value. In the past 20 years, Shaanxi, Beijing, Ningxia, Tianjin, and Shanxi showed a relatively high growth rate in grassland ecological value (>65%). Finally, China’s grasslands were divided into three categories and twelve subcategories, based on grassland protection and restoration strategies focusing on different key ecological services. Our study offers significant insights for assigning various protection and restoration priorities to achieve sustainable growth in grassland ecological value.

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    A bibliometric evaluation of the status of the water conservation function of grassland ecosystems
    Xiao-ning ZHANG, Xiao-dan LI, Li-li NIAN, Ying-bo YANG, Xue-lu LIU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (6): 35-49.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021160
    Abstract317)   HTML29)    PDF (4129KB)(381)       Save

    Grassland ecosystems are the largest ecosystem category of the terrestrial surface. Changes in grassland water conservation function are an important indicator of ecosystem condition, and respond to regional water cycles and global climate change. Using the Web of Science core collection and the China Knowledge Network database, the knowledge structure of water conservation research in grassland ecosystems was mapped using the visualization software packages VOSviewer and CiteSpace and bibliometric summaries of the relevant literature were compiled. It was found that there was a growing awareness of the field globally, with a fluctuating upward trend in the number of publications. The countries producing the highest numbers of studies were China and the United States, and the top three research institutions were all Chinese institutions; namely the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Beijing Normal University. Core author groups for this literature exhibited a pattern of “large dispersion and small aggregation” with the core authors as the nodes of research and little cooperation among research groups. Major publications included Science of The Total Environment, Catena, Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, Journal of Ecology and Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. The keywords ecosystem services, land use change, soil moisture, soil physical and chemical properties, and InVEST model were the most frequently mentioned topics of research in this field, both in China and abroad, in recent years. Soil moisture-soil physicochemical properties, combined with remote sensing technology to construct spatial and temporal scale evaluation models have become the frontier of research in this field. This study seeks to understand the current international research frontiers, clarify the developing trends in this field and summarize the research themes in order to promote further development of water conservation research in grassland ecosystems.

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    The diversity-Godron stability relationship of alpine grassland and its environmental drivers
    Shi-long LEI, Li-rong LIAO, Jie WANG, Lu ZHANG, Zhen-cheng YE, Guo-bin LIU, Chao ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (3): 1-12.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022125
    Abstract410)   HTML28)    PDF (5414KB)(372)       Save

    The diversity and stability of plant communities is of great significance to the function of ecosystems and their ability to provide services. Drawing on field investigation and analysis of data from 480 sample plots, the present study explored the relationship between plant diversity and stability of alpine wetland meadow, alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert steppe, and also elucidated their environmental drivers using significance analysis, regression analysis and structural equation modeling. It was found that the alpine steppe had higher plant diversity than the other three grassland types, and alpine meadow had the highest community stability. The relationship between species diversity and community stability was different in the four alpine grassland types. The community evenness was negatively correlated with community stability. Plant Shannon-Wiener diversity was negatively correlated with community stability in alpine meadow and alpine desert steppe, but in contrast plant richness was positively correlated with community stability in alpine wetland meadow and alpine steppe. Precipitation is the main factor affecting plant diversity and community stability in alpine grassland. Soil organic carbon, pH and ammonium nitrogen content also affected community stability through altering plant diversity. Taken together, climate and soil factors should be considered in the management of alpine grassland ecosystems, and different management measures should be formulated for different types of grassland.

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    A study on restoration potential of degraded grassland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
    Rui-jing WANG, Qi-sheng FENG, Zhe-ren JIN, Jie LIU, Yu-ting ZHAO, Jing GE, Tian-gang LIANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (6): 11-22.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021164
    Abstract275)   HTML32)    PDF (8568KB)(370)       Save

    In recent years, the alpine grassland ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has shown an overall improvement, but some areas of grassland are still degenerating to various extents. It is very important to evaluate the grassland status and restoration potential in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau to support policy-making relating to grassland restoration. Based on meteorological data and MODIS remote sensing images from 2001 to 2019, the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) model and the Thornthwaite Memorial model were used to estimate values for the actual net primary productivity (NPP) and potential net primary productivity (PNPP) across the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The difference between them was used to evaluate the potential benefit of grassland restoration. The main conclusions were as follows: 1) The spatial distribution of NPP over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 2001 to 2019 was a gradient from high in the southeast to low in the northwest. On the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, 41.0% of the grassland areas were being continuously restored, 12.7% of the grassland areas were exhibiting a stable status, and only 3.5% were exhibiting ongoing degradation. Overall, the Plateau grassland is in a state of sustainable restoration. 2) Similarly, the spatial distribution pattern of maximum potential net primary productivity(PNPPm)in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 2001 to 2019 was significantly higher in the southeast and southwest, and lower in the north. The PNPPm of individual grassland types was typically about 1000 g C·m-2. 3) From 2001 to 2019, the grassland recovery potential of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was higher in the southwest and southeast, and lower in the north. It was found that most grasslands in Shigatse, southern Ali, Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture and Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture regions have high restoration potential, so that the prospect of grassland restoration in these areas is better. The results of this study provide scientific and theoretical support for policy development relating to grassland restoration on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and provide important data to guide grassland protection and ecosystem restoration on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

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    Effects of fencing enclosure on interspecific associations in a Savanna grassland community in China’s arid-hot valley region
    Guang-xiong HE, Zheng-tao SHI, Bang-guo YAN, Hao-zhou YANG, Yi SUN, Yan-dan WANG, Jian-lin YU, Run-lian HE, Liang-tao SHI, Hai-dong FANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (2): 1-14.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022080
    Abstract238)   HTML22)    PDF (4131KB)(367)       Save

    This research studied the effects of fencing enclosure on interspecific associations in a Savanna grassland plant community. Fencing enclosure and disturbed areas were set up and maintained for 20 years to facilitate investigation of vegetation and water and soil conservation techniques in the arid-hot valley region surrounding the Jinsha River, and 25 dominant species from the two zones were selected as marker plants to calculate interspecific association indexes using the variance ratio (VR) method, chi-square testing, Jaccard index and Spearman rank correlational methods. Findings included the following. Enclosure resulted in obvious changes in the community composition and structure and nurtured the growth of native herbs such as like Cymlopogon goeringii (Cg), and promoted the establishment of more lignified species such as Barleria cristata (Bc), Pistacia weinmanniifolia (Pw) and Gaultheria forrestii (Gf), while inhibiting annual species, weed species and alien species, resulting in the emergence of a plant community dominated by constructive species. The overall interspecific association of Savanna grassland community in arid-hot valley was mainly positive, and enclosure facilitated the formation of more complex interspecific associations within the plant community. In disturbed areas, a strong positive association between annual species, weed species and alien species was strongly evident and a high resource competition or mutual ecological exclusion was stronger among community species, resulting in a single dominant species community represented by Heteropogon contortus (Hc). Overall the interspecific relationships in the enclosed area showed a significant positive association, with the formation of a positive association among leguminous species, lignified species and native species, while the positive and negative correlations among dominant species was also strengthened after enclosure. These results suggest that fencing enclosure has a significant effect on the relationship between dominant species in Savanna grassland from the arid-hot valley zone, affecting the species composition and functional group structure of the plant community. The resulting enhancement of the interaction between dominant species appears to be ecologically important.

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    Analysis of grassland community-level plant functional traits and functional diversity at different times during restoration
    Jiang-wen LI, Bang-yin HE, Cai LI, Hong-yan HUI, Bo LIU, Xiao-xi ZHANG, Hui FAN, Wen-yu SU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (1): 16-25.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022029
    Abstract358)   HTML24)    PDF (2783KB)(367)       Save

    Plant functional traits and functional diversity are important factors when evaluating the function of grassland ecosystems. In this study, we conducted a series of analyses of the understory grassland of Robinia pseudoacacia forests and abandoned grassland at different time points during restoration in the hilly and gully regions of the Loess Plateau. The community-level dynamics of plant functional traits and functional diversity were analyzed during vegetation restoration to explore how the grassland plant community and its functional traits change over time. The results showed that: 1) The understory grassland and abandoned grassland were both dominated by perennial weeds in the Asteraceae and Rosaceae; 2) During restoration, the understory grassland succeeded from a dicot-dominated community to a monocot-dominated community, while Asteraceae species were gradually replaced by Poaceae species. The abandoned grassland was always dominated by Asteraceae species, however, and showed a tendency to shrub encroachment. 3) The values of community-level leaf functional traits were higher in understory grassland than in abandoned grassland, while the values of community-level plant functional traits of coverage, density, and aboveground biomass were lower in understory grassland than in abandoned grassland. The values of species diversity and functional trait diversity were higher in abandoned grassland than in understory grassland, and abandoned grassland exhibited higher ecological benefits. These results provide a theoretical basis for the evaluation of grassland ecosystem functions in the hill and gully region of the Loess Plateau.

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    Response of soil organic phosphorus mineralization to alpine meadow degradation and temperature
    Hong-yu QIAN, Yu-lin PU, Shan-xin LANG, Yi-ran LI, Nan-ding ZHOU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 15-27.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022469
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    Clarification of the mineralization characteristics of organic phosphorus in degraded grassland soils at different temperatures can provide basic data and a theoretical framework for the scientific management of soil phosphorus nutrients during the ecological recovery of degraded grassland. In this research, an aerobic culture method at constant temperature and humidity was used to investigate the mineralization characteristics and temperature responses of organic phosphorus in non-degraded (ND) meadow, and lightly degraded (LD), moderately degraded (MD) and heavily degraded (HD) soils on the Zoige Plateau. It was found that the mineralization rate of organic phosphorus showed no obvious change in the early stage (0-30 d), increased rapidly in the middle stage (30-60 d), and gradually stabilized in the late stage (60-120 d) when the four types of meadow soils were cultured at 5-15 ℃. Meadow degradation had no significant effect on soil organic phosphorus mineralization at low temperature (5-10 ℃). However, soil organic phosphorus mineralization was significantly reduced in MD and HD soils at high temperature (≥15 ℃). Compared with ND, the net mineralization rate of organic phosphorus in MD and HD soils decreased by 52.8% and 56.8%, respectively, at 15 ℃, and the constant B0 of soil organic phosphorus mineralization decreased by 29.5% and 40.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the temperature sensitivity of soil organic phosphorus mineralization decreased gradually with increased severity of meadow degradation. For example, the temperature sensitivity coefficient y" of organic phosphorus mineralization in ND soil was significantly higher than that in MD and HD soils by 221.1% and 306.7%, respectively. In summary, the degradation of alpine meadow reduced the mineralization and temperature sensitivity of soil organic phosphorus, which would be predicted to result in further reduction of soil phosphorus availability, and exacerbate any problem of phosphorus limitation in degraded grassland ecosystems arising from ongoing global warming.

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    Chinese grassland insurance development model, practical difficulties and system construction
    Tao QIN, Cai-xia ZHU, Jian-he WANG, Jin ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 226-246.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022471
    Abstract196)   HTML8)    PDF (5348KB)(340)       Save

    Grassland is an important ecological security barrier, animal husbandry base and carbon reservoir carrier in China, and building a risk guarantee system with grassland insurance as the core is of great value for protecting the grassland ecological environment, promoting rural revitalization in pastoral areas and achieving the ‘dual carbon’ goal of peak carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and carbon neutrality before 2060,and it plays a key role in global climate governance. Through literature review and qualitative comparative analysis, it is found that the United States, Canada and France, among others, have established different forms of grassland product insurance systems, with index insurance as the core mechanism to transfer forage risks. However, Chinese grassland insurance is currently in the exploration stages. A current pilot phase, has not yet established a product system that is aligned with Chinese national conditions. During the pilot work, many constraints have emerged. There are some difficulties in collecting premiums, the promotion of the system lacks uniformity, the product supply power is insufficient, there is no theoretical basis for determination of premium rates, and the cost of determining loss claims is too high. Therefore, China needs to improve the grassland insurance policy system and product system as soon as possible, and build a linkage mechanism for central and local premium subsidies. Improvement of the multi-level disaster risk protection system and innovation introduction should include: The development model of a “comprehensive insurance+index insurance”; Development of diversified insurance products to meet the diversified risk management needs of insured entities; Promotion of the process of grassland risk zoning and rate determination, and establishing a differentiated dynamic pricing mechanism; Formulation of unified technical standards for survey and loss assessment; Improvement of the underwriting claim mechanism; Improvement of the level of grassland insurance technology and enhancement of the innovation level; And increase in the service capabilities of insurance products.

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    Dynamic changes in biomass accumulation and nutritional quality of triticeae forages
    Yong-liang YOU, Hai-ming ZHAO, Yuan LI, Rui-xin WU, Gui-bo LIU, Jian-dong ZHOU, Jun-feng CHEN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (6): 189-201.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021445
    Abstract237)   HTML6)    PDF (4052KB)(333)       Save

    To elucidate the dynamics of biomass accumulation and nutritional quality of triticeae forages, seven species or varieties of triticeae forages (rye, winter triticale, winter wheat, grain-forage triticale, oats, barley, spring triticale) were studied. The growth and development process from the jointing stage to the dough stage and the dynamic changes in dry matter yield and nutrient content were analyzed for crops in the North China Plain from 2016 to 2018. It was found that rye, winter triticale, winter wheat, grain-forage triticale generally reached the milk stage in mid to late May, while oats, barley and spring triticale generally reached the milk stage in early June. The average biomass of the seven tested triticeae forages increased from 2.72 t·ha-1 at the jointing stage to 10.19 t·ha-1 at the dough stage. The biomass of winter triticale at each growth stage was significantly higher than that of the other six triticeae forages tested (P<0.05), and was 61.4% higher than the average for those six crops. The crude protein content of all seven crops decreased gradually as the crops developed and matured, while the starch content increased gradually. The acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber contents increased gradually up to flowering, but decreased slightly thereafter. The software Milk 2006 was used to perform a multi-trait evaluation of the feeding quality of the seven triticeae forages. This analysis indicated that the feeding quality of winter wheat was better than that of the other six tested crops after the booting stage, and the milk yield per ton dry matter was predicted to be 6.9% higher on average than that of the other six crops. Multivariate analysis of biomass and feeding quality across growth stages showed that the milk yield per hectare of winter triticale from the jointing stage to the dough stage was on average 46.3% higher (P<0.05) than that of the other six tested crops. In this research, on the North China Plain, winter triticale performed best among the tested crops and it is recommended that the planting of winter triticale should be promoted.

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    The use of the tRNA-sgRNA/Cas9 system for gene editing in perennial ryegrass protoplasts
    Jia-ming YAO, Huan-huan HAO, Jing ZHANG, Bin XU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (4): 129-141.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022180
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    Transfer RNA (tRNA) can link multiple sgRNAs (single-guide RNAs) to form a polycistronic gene, which then combines with a CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated gene 9) expression vector to form a polycistronic tRNA-sgRNA/Cas9 (PTG/Cas9) system for multiple gene editing. The PTG/Cas9 system has been used to alter sgRNAs transcript levels and improve multi-target editing efficiency in rice (Oryza sativa). To efficiently edit target genes in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), we generated two CRISPR intermediate vectors with tRNAs to provide a fast and flexible PTG/Cas9 vector construction method. To verify whether the PTG/Cas9 system effectively edits genes in the perennial ryegrass genome, we introduced the PTG/Cas9 plasmid into perennial ryegrass protoplasts by PEG 4000-mediated transformation. Then, we extracted DNA from protoplasts and amplified the target sequences to determine whether they had been edited successfully. The gene editing efficiency was about 6.7%. These results show that the PTG/Cas9 system can be used for gene editing in the ryegrass genome, and provide the basis for further genetic research on, and breeding of perennial ryegrass.

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    High-resolution leaf area index inversion based on the Kernel Ridge Regression algorithm and PROSAIL model
    Heng-liang GUO, Xiao LI, Yu FU, Bao-jin QIAO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (12): 41-51.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021468
    Abstract331)   HTML13)    PDF (2466KB)(326)       Save

    Accurate estimation of leaf area index (LAI) plays an important role in ecological, environmental and climate change research. Large-scale LAI estimates can be obtained from satellite remote sensing technology, but they rely on a large amount of ground-measured data with and they have low spatial resolution, which often does not meet the needs of high-precision and large-scale research. In this study, using surface reflectance data with a spatial resolution of 30 m, we tested an inversion method combining the Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) algorithm and the PROSAIL physical model to invert LAI without a large number of ground measured data. First, the sensitivity analysis was performed on the input parameters of the PROSAIL model to determine the input parameters and generate the simulated data sets. Then, the KRR model inversion between the simulated reflectance and LAI was established. For comparison, we linked two other models, the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) algorithm and the Random Forest Regression (RFR) algorithm, with the PROSAIL model, to perform high spatial resolution LAI inversion. Finally, we used ground measured data to compare the outputs and performance of the three inversion models. We found that the LAI inversion accuracy of the KRR-PROSAIL model was the highest with an R 2 of 0.8089 and root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.2492. The inversion accuracies of the PROSAIL model linked with MLP and RFR were inferior with R2 values of 0.7726 and 0.7118, respectively and RMSE values of 0.2781 and 0.2432, respectively. Based on this study we recommend the combination of the Kernel Ridge Regression algorithm and PROSAIL models to invert satellite data to LAI for improved accuracy and high spatial resolution of the inverted LAI data. This methodology provides a method for rapid and accurate inversion of regional high-precision LAI information.

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    Cloning and function analysis of MsPPR1 in alfalfa under drought stress
    Shao-peng WANG, Jia LIU, Jun HONG, Ji-zhen LIN, Yi ZHANG, Kun SHI, Zan WANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (7): 49-60.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022425
    Abstract204)   HTML15)    PDF (4774KB)(316)       Save

    Drought is an important environmental factor affecting plant growth, development and yield. pentatricopeptide repeats (PPR) family proteins play important roles in plant growth, development, stress response and other physiological processes. In this study, an MsPPR1 gene was cloned from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cv. Zhongmu No.1, and the drought resistance function of MsPPR1 was investigated through decreasing its expression in alfalfa using a virus induced gene silencing method and heterologous overexpression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). It was found that the open reading frame contains 3213 bp, encoding 1070 amino acids, and the relative molecular weight of the encoded protein is 121.65 kDa. MsPPR1 is a typical member of the PPR protein family, containing multiple PPR repeat domains and locating in the cytoplasm. MsPPR1 was expressed most in leaves, followed by stems and roots, and least in flowers and induced by drought, mannitol and abscisic acid treatments. The expression of MsPPR1 was decreased by the virus induced gene silencing technology in alfalfa, and decrease of MsPPR1 expression significantly reduced the drought resistance of the plants. The MsPPR1-silenced plants were more wilted, the relative water content was significantly reduced, and the relative electrolyte permeability was significantly increased. The heterologous overexpression of MsPPR1 in tobacco enhanced the drought resistance of transgenic tobacco, while the malondialdehyde content significantly decreased and the proline content increased. This study indicates that MsPPR1 is a positive regulatory factor of alfalfa drought resistance and provides a candidate gene for molecular breeding of alfalfa for drought resistance.

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    Effects of wilting and additives on the fermentation quality and dominant microbial genera in Napier grass silage at different temperatures
    Jing TIAN, Xiang YIN, Yang FAN, Xin-qin LI, Jian-guo ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2022, 31 (7): 76-84.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2021245
    Abstract331)   HTML13)    PDF (1907KB)(313)       Save

    Due to the moist, humid climate in South China, the moisture content of harvested Napier grass is high, and the fermentation quality of silage, when ensiled directly, is poor. In this study, Napier grass was wilted (moisture content decreased to 75.11% from 83.19%) and 10% corn flour or 2% sucrose was added, to explore the fermentation characteristics and microbial fermentative community during ensiling at different temperatures (20, 30 and 40 ℃) for 60 days. It was found that temperature had significant effects on the fermentation quality of Napier grass silages. Wilting decreased the water-soluble carbohydrate content of pre-ensiled Napier grass and the fermentation quality of silages, especially when ensiled at 30 ℃, as indicated by a high pH of 5.85, low lactic acid content of 1.56% DM, an acetic acid content of 2.10% DM, and an NH3-N content of 25.09% TN. The acetic acid production of both the untreated Control and silages with additives increased with increase in ensiling temperature. The gas production of wilted silages ensiled at 20 and 30 ℃ was significantly higher than that at 40 ℃ or for unwilted silages. In addition, the bacterial diversity of Napier grass before ensiling was higher than its silage. After ensiling, the microorganisms found on Napier grass were dominated by the genera Enterobacter and Lactococcus, especially when ensiled at 20 ℃. The relative abundance of Enterococcus in wilted silage at 20 and 30 ℃ was higher than at 40 ℃. In summary, adding corn flour and sucrose can decrease the negative influence of environmental temperature while wilting under humid conditions did not have a positive effect on the fermentation quality of Napier grass silage in South China.

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    A multi-trait evaluation of the performance of 16 forage oat varieties in central and southern Heilongjiang Province
    Feng LI, Wen-long LI, Xue LI, Zhong-juan ZHANG, Lin-po BAI, Yu-fei ZHAO, Ya TAO
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (10): 82-92.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022473
    Abstract176)   HTML16)    PDF (540KB)(313)       Save

    This research evaluated forage oat varieties for suitability for spring sowing in central and southern Heilongjiang Province to assist the sustainable development of animal husbandry in this region. Our study monitored and analyzed the growth period, lodging resistance, yield traits and nutritional quality of 16 domestic and foreign oat (Avena sativa) varieties, and compiled a multi-trait production performance score using the grey correlation method. The results were as follows: Time from sowing to cutting (milk maturity) for the 16 oat varieties ranged from 83-97 days, during which time Mengshi No.1, Qingyin No.1, Qingyin No.2, Charisma, Helios and Kona did not lodge. Values for plant height, hay yield, fresh yield, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), ether extract (EE), water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and relative feed quality (RFQ), respectively, ranged from 96.40-131.13 cm, 7287.73-14635.76 kg·hm-2, 19366.97-36905.00 kg·hm-2, 8.61%-11.39% dry matter (DM), 42.86%-57.84%DM, 23.52%-34.99%DM, 1.19%-1.88%DM, 3.52%-10.18%DM, and 128.28-208.78. There were significant differences among different varieties in all characteristics evaluated (P<0.05), and the plant heights of Qingyin No.1, Qinghai sweet oats and Heibei were significantly greater than those of other varieties. The hay yields of Mengshi No.1, Kona, Baiyan No.7 and Dahan were significantly higher than those of other varieties; The CP content of Lanniao No.1 was significantly higher than that of other varieties; The NDF contents of Baiyan No.7, Mengshi No.1 and Lanniao No.1 were significantly lower than Charisma and Everleaf, and Mengshi No.1, Baiyan No.7, Souris and Lanniao No.1 had significantly lower ADF than Everleaf. The RFQ value of Baiyan No.7 was significantly higher than that of other varieties. Grey correlation analysis showed that the weighting coefficients for plant height, CP and NDF ranked the top three among all traits and were therefore important characteristics for evaluating oat productivity in this region. Baiyan No.7, Mengshi No.1, Kona, Qingyin No.2 and Qinghai sweet oat had higher grey scores and superior multi-trait performance, and are therefore recommended as suitable for sowing in Heilongjiang Province and similar areas.

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    Remote sensing retrieval of nature grassland biomass in Menyuan County, Qinghai Province experimental area based on Sentinel-2 data
    Rui GUO, Shuai FU, Meng-jing HOU, Jie LIU, Chun-li MIAO, Xin-yue MENG, Qi-sheng FENG, Jin-sheng HE, Da-wen QIAN, Tian-gang LIANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (4): 15-29.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022147
    Abstract435)   HTML21)    PDF (3464KB)(311)       Save

    Above-ground biomass (AGB) is an important indicator for evaluating grassland productivity. Accurate inversion of AGB of natural grassland is of great significance for monitoring grassland growth and evaluating the feed balance of forage-livestock. As commonly used remote sensing data (such as Landsat and MODIS) suffer from by many problems caused by low temporal and spatial resolution, it is extremely important to explore Sentinel-2 satellite data with higher temporal and spatial resolution and more spectral bands in monitoring grassland vegetation at county scale. In this study, we used Sentinel-2 satellite remote sensing imagery and the AGB data of Menyuan County, Qinghai Province to construct a grassland biological monitoring system based on random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods, to study the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of natural grassland biomass in Menyuan County from 2019 to 2021. It was found that: 1) The three original bands(B2,B6,B11)and two vegetation indices, inverted red edge chlorophyll index(IRECI),and pigment specific simple ratio chlorophyll index(PSSRa),were the important variables for AGB quantification in natural grassland. Among these,red-edge bands(B5,B6,B7)play an important role in remote sensing inversion of natural grassland AGB. 2) The AGB estimation model based on the RF algorithm was the optimal model(validation set R2 0.72, RMSE 622.616 kg·ha-1)for natural grassland biomass estimation in Menyuan County, which was superior to the SVM model(validation set R2 0.66,RMSE 698.271 kg·ha-1)and the ANN model(validation set R2 0.63,RMSE 730.676 kg·ha-1). 3) The average value of AGB of natural grassland in Menyuan County from 2019 to 2021 ranged from 3360.26-3544.00 kg·ha-1. In general, the AGB of grassland in Menyuan County from 2019 to 2021 showed a trend of initially increasing and then decreasing, with a spatial distribution pattern of gradual decrease from the periphery to the middle.

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    Economic cost assessment of global invasive plants
    Guang-hua ZHAO, Ming-long GAO, Duo WANG, Shi-qi FAN, Jian TANG, Kuo SUN, Xuan-ye WEN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (5): 16-24.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023220
    Abstract204)   HTML42)    PDF (2111KB)(306)       Save

    Among invasive species, plants comprise the most diverse and numerous biological groups. Assessing the economic cost of invasive plants is an important part of risk management and is essential for the development of policies for control or eradication. In this study, based on the InvaCost database, we assessed the economic costs of global invasive plants from 1970 to 2017. The main results were as follows: 1) The conservative economic cost of invasive plants from 1970 to 2017 was 194.365 billion U.S. dollars (USD), 4.049 billion USD per year on average, of which the direct economic loss amounted to 100.468 billion USD, accounting for 51.69% of the total. 2) Among 64 countries and regions, the United States has borne the highest economic costs, followed by Australia, and China ranks third with costs of 20.831 billion USD (equivalent to 140.707 billion RMB). Notably, Eichhornia crassipes has been the most expensive invasive plant species globally, with the costs of its damage exceeding the combined costs of invasive plants ranking 5th to 10th. 3) Over the past five decades, the economic cost of invasive plants has shown an upward trend. Model estimates suggest that the possible cost of invasive plants in 2017 ranged from 3.438 billion to 10.452 billion USD, with the highest confidence value being 7.725 billion USD. The results of this study contribute to a deeper understanding of the severity of invasive plant threats and provide a scientific basis for more proactive invasive plant management in China.

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    Progress in studies of molecular mechanisms and applications of somatic cell regeneration during genetic transformation
    Yu-zhu LI, Jiang-di YU, Fei-fei DING, Jia-min MIAO, Xiao-ming BAI, Shang-li SHI
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2024, 33 (2): 198-211.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2023147
    Abstract174)   HTML11)    PDF (578KB)(304)       Save

    Plant genetic transformation is the key of transgenic technology, genome editing, functional genomics research and molecular breeding. Species and genotype differences are often the main bottlenecks limiting the efficiency of genetic transformation and the wide application of gene editing technology. With the molecular mechanism of de novo shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis being gradually explored, the growth and developmental regulatory genes involved in the synthesis, response and signal transduction of auxin and cytokinin in callus formation, proliferation and regeneration are used to improve genetic transformation efficiency. In this study, we first review the different ways and means of achieving somatic cell regeneration after genetic transformation, and the molecular mechanisms of regeneration for the transformed cells through indirect organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Then, the application of regeneration-promoting genes related to auxin and cytokinin in improving regeneration efficiency, shortening transformation time, and realizing genetic transformation of recalcitrant species and genotypes was discussed. Finally, the potential for application of regeneration-promoting genes when working with transgenic and gene-edited cells were summarized and current research directions were discussed.

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    Spatio-temporal changes in grassland fractional vegetation cover in Inner Mongolia from 2000 to 2020 and a future forecast
    Hui-long ZHANG, Xiu-chun YANG, Dong YANG, Ang CHEN, Min ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (8): 1-13.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022370
    Abstract357)   HTML148)    PDF (5420KB)(304)       Save

    Inner Mongolia is an important green ecological barrier in northern China, and grassland degradation in this region is of great concern. Fractional vegetation cover (FVC) is one of the most direct indicators of grassland ecological status. At present, it is still a challenge to build an accurate FVC estimation model for dynamic analysis of a large region over a long period of time. In this study, we used a large ground survey dataset, MODIS remote sensing data, and meteorological data from 2000 to 2020, and applied the random forest model for FVC partition modeling and prediction. The Sen+Mann-Kendall trend analysis method and Hurst index method were used to analyze the spatio-temporal changes in the FVC and its future trends. The main results were as follows: 1) The precision of each partition of the random forest model was better than that of the whole region, which effectively reduced the impact of spatial heterogeneity. 2) In Inner Mongolia, the grassland FVC generally showed a spatial pattern of being high in the east and low in the west, with obvious spatial differences. 3) In the past 21 years, the FVC of grassland in Inner Mongolia showed a fluctuating upward trend overall, the area of increased FVC was larger than the area of decreased FVC, and the magnitude of the extremely significant increase and significant increase was greater than that of the extremely significant decrease and significant decrease. 4) In the future, the grassland FVC in Inner Mongolia will generally improve. The area of FVC growth is larger than the area of FVC decrease, and the area with extremely significant growth and significant growth accounts for a high proportion (25.9%) of the total area. It is predicted that vegetation growth will develop well in the future.

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    Progress in research on the effects of grazing on grassland litter decomposition
    Ao JIANG, Lu-huai JING, Tserang-donko MIPAM, Li-ming TIAN
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (4): 208-220.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022160
    Abstract315)   HTML30)    PDF (2548KB)(302)       Save

    Grazing, as one of the major land-use types in grassland ecosystems, regulates litter decomposition through altering the soil environment, biotic and abiotic factors, and litter quantity and quality, thus affecting nutrient cycling and energy flow. However, there is still much to learn about how grazing affects litter decomposition in grasslands and the microbial mechanisms related to this process. In this study, we conducted a bibliometric analysis and literature review to provide an overview of research on grazing and its effects on litter decomposition. The progress and deficiencies of research on the effects of grazing on litter decomposition in grasslands were clarified from three aspects, i.e., the soil environment (e.g., soil moisture, soil temperature, bulk density, light, and pH), microbial activity (e.g., community structure, nutrients, and home-field advantage), and litter quality (plant community structure, plant diversity, and litter quality). We summarized the results of studies on the effects of grazing-induced changes in litter decomposition on nutrient cycling. On the basis of our findings, we propose several future research directions: 1) Construct a network of long-term experiments in which grazing intensity is manipulated; 2) Explore the mechanisms by which grazing affects the litter decomposition of roots with varying diameters; 3) Determine the effects of grazing on mixed-species litter decomposition; 4) Identify the key processes and mechanisms by which grazing affects litter decomposition from a systematic perspective that integrates plant-litter-soil and environment-microorganisms; and 5) Determine the synergistic effects of grazing and global change on litter decomposition. This study provides a scientific basis for understanding how global change will affect litter decomposition and the mechanisms underlying the maintenance and sustainable development of ecosystem services in grasslands.

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    Accumulation and functions of polyamines in plants under drought stress
    Wen-juan WANG, Shang-li SHI, Long HE, Bei WU, Chan-chan LIU
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (6): 186-202.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022303
    Abstract360)   HTML9)    PDF (2273KB)(287)       Save

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that causes reductions in crop yields. Polyamines are a class of low molecular weight aliphatic nitrogenous bases in plants. They have strong biological activity and are involved in a range of physiological processes such as plant organogenesis, embryogenesis, bud differentiation, leaf senescence, pollen tube growth, and fruit development and ripening. They also play important roles in plants under drought stress. In this paper, we review research on the anabolism and catabolism of polyamines, their functions under abiotic stress, and differences in their accumulation among species/varieties of plants under drought stress. We also discuss studies on the effects of exogenous polyamines and those using transgenic approaches to elucidate the roles of polyamines at the physiological level. The body of research on polyamines has shown that they enhance drought resistance by improving plant growth and development, photosynthetic capacity, accumulation of osmoregulatory substances, and antioxidant capacity, and that they participate in signal transduction at the molecular level in plants under drought stress.

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    Spatio-temporal analysis of the alpine grassland carrying capacity in Qinghai Province considering a supply-consumption relationship
    Jie GAO, Xin-quan ZHAO, Wen-ting LIU, Xiao-xia YANG, Chun-ping ZHANG, Yang YU, Quan CAO, Yu-zhen LIU, Xue ZHANG, Quan-min DONG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (5): 1-12.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022192
    Abstract277)   HTML30)    PDF (5579KB)(287)       Save

    Qinghai Province is an important part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. To achieve the sustainable use of grassland resources in this region, it is important to explore the local grass-livestock balance and determine the spatial and temporal trends in the carrying capacity of its grassland ecosystem. In this study, we focused on animal husbandry in Qinghai Province, and combined remote sensing image data with livestock statistics to analyze the carrying state of grassland ecosystems in this province. It was found that: 1) According to the statistical yearbook provided by the Qinghai Provincial Bureau of Statistics, the number of grazing livestock in Qinghai Province increased by 25.35% between 2005 and 2020. In terms of livestock structure, Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture are dominated by yak breeding, while Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Haidong City are dominated by sheep breeding. 2) The consumption of grassland resources in Qinghai Province increased by 13.21% over 16 years, showing an overall increasing trend with differences among administrative regions. 3) The number of prefectures with severe overloading of livestock in Qinghai Province dropped to fewer than three in 2010 for the first time, and the best overall grass-livestock balance was in 2013. In general, the animal-grazing pressure has decreased over time. Sorted by region, Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture showed the most obvious increase in carrying pressure, and Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture showed the most obvious decrease in animal-grazing pressure. The results showed that the number of grazing livestock in Qinghai Province has increased between 2005 and 2020, but there has been a tendency for the grazing pressure to ease, with each administrative region showing some variability in livestock structure and changes in grazing pressure. This highlights the importance of adapting measures to local conditions. These results provide a scientific basis for the ecological management of alpine grasslands and the development of the livestock industry in Qinghai Province.

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    Spatial distribution of ecosystem services in the desert steppe, Inner Mongolia based on ecosystem service bundles
    Yu-xia HU, Ji-rui GONG, Chen-chen ZHU, Jia-yu SHI, Zi-he ZHANG, Liang-yuan SONG, Wei-yuan ZHANG
    Acta Prataculturae Sinica    2023, 32 (4): 1-14.   DOI: 10.11686/cyxb2022142
    Abstract332)   HTML34)    PDF (3072KB)(281)       Save

    Ecosystem services play an important role in maintaining ecological security, sustainable development and human well-being. In this rresearch, the study area was the desert steppe of Inner Mongolia and a quantitative assessment of water conservation, soil conservation, habitat quality, and recreational potential in 2000 and 2017 was carried out. Their spatial and temporal distribution characteristics and the trade-offs and synergies between services are analyzed and discussed; the dominant service types and spatial patterns of different service bundles are identified. It was found that: from 2000 to 2017, the spatial heterogeneity of various ecosystem services was significant. The high-value areas of water conservation services are mainly concentrated in the southeast and southwest; the high value soil conservation is located in the southwest; the distribution of habitat quality and recreational potential is more random. Various ecosystem services show a mainly decreasing trend; most service pairs show a synergistic relationship, while soil conservation and habitat quality service pairs show a trade-off relationship, and the degree of correlation between service pairs decreases. Ecosystem service bundles are divided into three functional areas of soil conservation, living environment and water conservation and have obvious spatial heterogeneity. In the soil conservation area, the main land use type is unused land, and future management should limit the amount of grazing and seek to influence soil erodibility by changing the surface vegetation cover. The human settlement area, with high grassland cover provides excellent scope for human activities and the coordinated development of multiple industries such as eco-tourism. In the water conservation area, the land use types are mainly grassland with medium cover and grassland with low cover. Future management should focus on water storage and water conservation, adhere to ecological priorities, and pursue ecologically sustainable development in this area.

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